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Department of Education 

Contributed by the Publishers 

3 2044 102 782 323 

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Instructor in the Massachusetts Normal Art School, and in the School of Drawing and 

Painting, Museum of Fine A rts, Boston. A uthor of ^* Free-Hand Drawing, 

Light and Shade, and Free-Hand Perspective^'' and a Series of 

Text and Drawing Books for the Public Schools 

Boston, U.S.A., and London 

Cbe attbmKttm Pre00 


4 — V •;n V ^ ^ Q 1 O X^' 

^C^A.Ji /> T" S'o r!:,% '"^"1 • "^^^^ ^ 



Copyright, 1897 




The text-books of the National Drawing Course are intended 
particularly for public school teachers ; but this book is written, 
not only for public school teachers, but for all art students and 
others interested in art education. It supplements the first 
book of the series (** Free-Hand Drawing *'), and shows how the 
methods explained in it may be applied in the study of light 
and shade. 

Good instruction in drawing must be based upon the prin- 
ciples which underlie the best in art, and therefore any book 
which is intended for the student and elementary teacher must 
present these principles, and must also show how students 
may be led to see, think, and work independently. 

The books "Free-Hand Drawing,'* "Mechanical Drawing,'* 
and " Color Study " form a necessary part of the National 
Drawing Course, as they contain the lessons in these different 
subjects which are to be given according to the order specified 
in the teacher's " Outlines of Lessons." " Light and Shade " 
contains no lessons or other work called for in the plan of 
study of the present system, for it is not considered wise to 
attempt light and shade in the public schools until pupils 
have gained more ability in free-hand drawing than they now 
generally acquire below the high school. In presenting, in the 
"Outlines of Lessons," work in outline simply, the author does 
not wish to be understood as in favor of this work only, or 


as holding the opinion that light and shade cannot be taught 
in the public schools with advantage in grades below the high 
schools. On the contrary, he believes that this subject may 
under suitable conditions be properly introduced into grammar 
schools when pupils are able to draw in outline with some 
degree of facility and truth. 

This book is written for those who wish to study the first 
principles of light and shade, and the details concerning 
mediums, technique, and the many points upon which the 
student must be informed. It is written with the hope that 
it may assist students, and particularly those who work at home, 
to study intelligently, so that all may go to Nature as the first 
and best teacher, and be prepared to discover in her the truths 
she unfolds to those who study her seriously. 

Many of the illustrations of this book are from students* 
drawings, and though they do not reproduce the drawings 
perfectly, they give an idea of what may be accomplished by 
students who are taught to work artistically, and to depend 
upon themselves and upon study of nature. 

Figs. 43, 44, and 58 are by second-year students of the 
Massachusetts Normal Art School ; the other charcoal draw- 
ings of Chap. V are by students of the entering class of the 
same school, as is also Fig. 62. Figs. 63, 64, and 65 are by 
students of the School of Drawing and Painting of the Museum 
of Fine Arts, Boston. 

Such work can seldom be done in the public schools until 
conditions are very different from those now existing; but 
teachers can give instruction of an artistic nature which will be 
in harmony with the work of the best artists, and which will 
prepare for work such as that illustrated. 


Only the essentials can be given in this book. Those 
who wish to go more deeply into theories and principles will 
find many interesting books. Among these the works of Sir 
Joshua Reynolds are particularly valuable, as he is a prominent 
example of a great artist who has also written upon art, and 
all art students are advised to study his writings with care. 

The author desires to express his obligations to Robert W. 
Vonnoh, G. A. Hill, and Amy Swain, who have kindly read the 
proof sheets and furnished him with many valuable suggestions. 

Boston, October 12, 1896. 




Chiaro-oscura, or Light and Shade . i 

Values and Their Tests 46 

Aims of Student and Artist 62 

Technique and Methods . 70 

Charcoal Drawing 85 

Pencil Drawing m 

Brush Drawing 128 

Drawing in the Public Schools 140 

Advice to Art Students 152 


INDEX 179 





Chiaro-oscura. — The word "chiaro-oscura" means the art of 
producing the appearance of reality and of solidity by a drawing 
which represents the different lights and darks seen in nature. 

Sight due to education. ■ — We see what we have- been educated to 
see. -The infant reaches out his hand to grasp the moon, and even to 
adults appearances are so deceptive that when the moon is rising or 
the sun is setting, it is difficult often to believe that they are not just 
beyond some hill in the middle distance, and if the distances were not 
fixed by science they would be continually under' discussion. There 
is no chance for discussion concerning the facts, but upon questions 
of art science is of little assistance. Hence different people view- 
ing the same things will give very contradictory reports of what they 
see, and each will be positive^ that what he has seen is what all 
should see and all that can be seen. 

Sight is imperfect. — Any one will be surprised to discover how 
little he really sees, even of the objects about him every day, if he 
will attempt to describe from memory, either by words or by making 
any kind of a drawing, the facts concerning any building which is 
seen daily. On comparison of his description or drawing with the 
building, he will be astonished to discover that he has never really 
seen the building, for he cannot describe correctly even its principal 
parts ; and as for details, many of the most important he never sees 
until he compares the building with his description. 

Sight due to memory. — The act of seeing depends upon the 
brain more than upon the eye, for sight sensations are referred 


by the mind to knowledge previously obtained concerning similar 
sensations. Seeing is thus largely a matter of memory, and sight 
sensations are read, not by careful study of the facts of the image 
in the eye, but by means of the knowledge gained from all sources 
concerning objects which have occasioned similar sensations. The 
natural eye is an exact instrument which records truly the apparent 
form and color of an object. The same images are formed in all 
normal eyes which view any object from the same position, but these 
images will be read differently by minds differing in capacity and train- 
ing ; and of a dozen different people who see the same objects, no two 
are likely to agree in their description of them. The person who has 
not studied drawings looks at a circle and sees a circle, regardless of 
the position of the circle ; he looks at a white object and sees white 
of one unvarying value ; he looks at a tree and sees green when the 
eye may record not a single spot of green. The uncultivated eye 
sees objects in outline and of their local color, and even those of 
artistic temperament and education require much study to realize 
that any object of one color appears of very different colors, none of 
which may be the local color. 

Objects are seen by contrasts of light and dark. — Objects are 
seen through the action of light which they reflect to the eye in dif- 
ferent degrees and of different colors, and every object appears 
lighter on one side, darker on the opposite side, and throws a shadow 
upon some other object. Objects are visible because of contrasts 
of light and dark, each one appearing either lighter or darker than 
its surroundings, or appearing lighter than the background in one 
part and darker in another. If two objects of the same color reflect 
light equally to the eye, they appear of the same value, and if any part 
of one is in front of the other, its outline in this part cannot be seen. 

A monochrome. — These contrasts of light, dark, and color may 
be represented by contrasts of light and dark, using simply one color. 
Such a drawing or painting is called a monochrome^ and may be of 
any color, though black or some dark neutral color is generally used. 

A monochrome is a light and shade drawing, whether it is made 
with oil or water color or colored crayon, and any drawing repre- 
senting values simply is a light and shade drawing, whether made 
with the brush, charcoal, crayon, pen and ink, or other medium. 


All objects in nature are colored, and representing these colors by 
black and white or by different tones of any one pigment gives a 
conventional treatment, which, though far superior to outline, may 
fail in expressing all the facts observed, to do which even color is 
sometimes insufficient ; but a light and shade drawing is capable of 
expressing much concerning any object. It is more satisfactory 
than outline, because the shadow on any object varies with the form 
of the object, and thus describes it ; and also because the cast 
shadows vary both with the form of the object which casts them and 
with that of the object which receives them, so that they describe 
the forms of both. The shadow and cast shadow will often show 
facts of form which the outline or contour of the object does not 
show at all. 

Effects of different lights. — Objects are seen under very different 
illuminations ; they may be exposed to direct light, either sunlight, 
moonlight, or any artificial light, and this light may be strong or 
weak ; or they may be seen under the diffused light of a gray day, 
or of a room with shaded windows, or of a starlight night. The 
direct light may come from one source or from several, and the dif- 
fused light may be strong or weak, though to a less extent than direct 
light. It is evident that the effects produced by these different lights 
must be so numerous and so varied that to formulate rules for the 
production of light and shade drawings is impossible. But by study 
of the effects certain principles may be discovered which will help 
the student of light and shade just as the study of the principles 
of free-hand perspective aids in the study of outline drawing. 

The Sphere. 

Sphere illustrates all light and shade contrasts. — We will study 
the effects of sunlight by means of the sphere, which is well adapted 
to present all the light and shade effects visible in nature. 

Sunlight effects. — The rays of sunlight are straight, and diverge 
from the sun, but in the study of shadows are generally considered 
as parallel. One half of the surface of the sphere will then receive 
direct rays of light, and the other half will receive no direct rays. 
The half which receives the direct rays appears light, and is called 




the light ; that which receives no direct rays appears dark in contrast 
with the light, and is called the shadow. The light and the shadow 
are separated by a great circle upon the sphere which is perpen- 
dicular to the rays of light. The points in the circumference of 
this circle are the points upon the surface of the sphere at which 
the rays of light are tangent to the sphere. These tangent rays 
form a cylindrical surface which extends below the sphere till it 
intersects the ground or other sur- 
face. The part of this other surface 
within the cylindrical surface re- 
ceives no direct light and is called 
the cast shadow. Any object ex- 
posed to direct light has a light 
side and a shadow side, and throws 
a cast shadow. 

Dividing line of light and shade. 
— The above facts are shown by Figs, i and 2. Fig. i is a side 
view representing the ground by A B, the highest and lowest rays 
of light by R and R, the light by Z, and the shadow by S, The great 
circle which separates light from shadow is represented by C D, and 
is called the dividing line of light and shade. Observa- 
tion of a white sphere which is exposed to sunlight 
will make these points plain. But if Fig. i is not 
understood, let the student roll a sheet of paper into 
a tube which will just receive a ball or other spherical 
object. He will find that the cylinder 
will touch the sphere in a circle which 
is at right angles to the axis of the cylin- 
der and which appears a straight line 
when the cylinder is placed as in Fig. i . 
Fig. 2 represents the sphere when it is below the eye with the 
ellipse of cast shadow visible, and so that the circle separating light 
from shadow appears an ellipse. 

Light and shadow on the moon. — A familiar object which illus- 
trates the appearance of the dividing line of light and shade on the 
sphere is the moon, of which half the surface is lighted by the sun's 
rays and the other half is in shadow. The moon is constantly 

Fig. 2. 


changing its position with reference to the earth and the sun ; hence 
its circle, which separates light from dark, is being seen at differ- 
ent angles, and the different phases of the moon result. 

Photographs do not give sharp dividing lines of light and shade. 
— In Fig. 3, which is made from a photograph of a white sphere 
with a smooth surface, there is no sharp dividing line of light and 
shade. The light came from a window facing north, and we must 
now consider the cause for the difference between Figs. 2 and 3. 

Reflections. — In order to determine this we must remember that 

Fig. 3. From Photograph. 

light is reflected from any smooth, polished surface such as that of 
a mirror, so that the angle of incidence is equal to the angle of 
reflection, and a perfect image of the object is produced. Very little 
of the light falling on the surface is absorbed by it, and almost 
all the rays are regularly reflected so that the image is almost as 
bright as the object. If the mirror is not quite smooth or regular, a 
distorted image will be produced, and as the roughness of the sur- 
face is increased, its power to reflect light decreases ; moreover the 
light is reflected irregularly, so that no image is produced. 

Effect depends upon position. — The difference in the appearance 
of the different parts of the sphere of Fig. 3 is caused entirely by the 
different positions of the various parts of its surface with reference to 


the light. The lightest part is not, as is commonly stated, the part 
which receives the most light, that is, the part at right angles to the 
direction of the light, but is the part which is situated so as to reflect 
the light most directly to the eye. The darkest parts of the surface 
are those which send to the eye none of the direct rays and the 
fewest rays that strike the surface after being reflected from some 
other surface. 

The high light. — The surface of the sphere is continually chang- 
ing. One point is situated so that it reflects the ray which it 
receives directly to the eye. This point glitters, and is called the 
high light or glitter point. Away from this point the rays are reflected 
less directly toward the eye, and the farther from the high light a 
point in the light is situated, the farther from the eye it reflects the 
light it receives. 

The high light is theoretically a point when seen with one eye 
and with direct sunlight, and if the sphere is one whose surface 
is a perfect mirror. With any studio or other light and the usual 
conditions, the high light is a figure of definite form, which is the 
reflection of the window or source of light, and within it will be found 
the image of all the bars which divide the window. If the sphere is 
not polished, there will be instead of the high light a spot whose size 
depends upon the size of the window or light, and which is brighter 
than any other part of the sphere. Hence we have a glitter point or 
its equivalent on the surface of every sphere. 

The half light. — The points in the circle which separate light 
from shadow do not reflect any direct rays to the eye, for these rays 
are tangent to the sphere at these points, which, since they receive no 
direct light, must appear very dark. From the high light toward 
these points there is a gradual diminution in the apparent brightness 
of the sphere, and at these points the light surface ceases. The 
gradation is very gradual through the larger part of the light, and is 
most noticeable near the dividing line of light and shade ; this last 
part is called the half light. 

The reflected light. — The strongest part of the shadow upon 
the sphere is the circle which separates the light from the shadow. 
Between this circle and the outline of the sphere a part of the shadaw 
is considerably lighter than the rest of the shadow. This is caused 


by light which is reflected to the sphere from the object on which it 
rests or from other objects, and is called reflected light. This reflected 
light is always present, and the entire shadow part of the sphere 
which is visible must receive and send to the eye some reflected 
light ; were this not the case all details of the shadow side would be 
as invisible as the dark part of the moon. The power of reflected 
light is shown at the time of new moon when all the surface of the 
moon is visible ; a small part being brightly illumined by the direct 
rays of the sun, and the larger part faintly lighted by the rays 
reflected to it from the earth and then sent back to earth again. 

If the surface of the sphere is polished and a bright object is 
placed near the shadow side, it will be reflected bright and sharply 
defined ; and upon a sphere of polished metal the reflections would 
be so bright as to destroy the effect of light and shadow. When the 
surface is not polished or not even smooth, the reflected lights are 
much weaker and may often be hardly noticed. 

The cast shadow. — The cast shadow in Fig. 3 is seen to be dark 
and clearly defined, its outline being sharper near the sphere than 
farther away. The cast shadow, like the shadow, is darker in parts 
and lighter in other parts, owing to the unequal amounts of reflected 
light which these parts receive and then reflect to the eye. 

Photographs not always true to nature. — Photographs do not 
give the values and relations which the eye sees, but they often 
give the principal effects so nearly as the eye sees them that the 
student may learn much from them in connection with study of the 
objects themselves, and thus many of the illustrations of this book 
are from photographs. All who study these notes are advised to care- 
fully study similar objects placed so that they are lighted as in the 
illustrations. The direction of the light and the size of the window 
from which it comes influence the effect so strongly that several 
experiments may be necessary to obtain effects similar to those of 
the figures. 

The Cube. 

Generally three faces of the cube are in light and three in shadow, 
and six edges separate light from shadow and form the dividing line 
of light and shade. 



Fig. 4 represents a white cube placed against a gray background 
and a piece of charcoal resting against the cube. The light comes 
from above, behind, and at the left of the spectator. 

The light. — The front light face is lightest at the front edge and 
gradually becomes darker as it recedes ; it is lighter than the top 
face. If the cube is perfectly clean and its faces are equally white, 
and the light comes from such a direction that the top face and the 
front face reflect it equally to the eye, these faces will appear equally 

Fig. 4. From Photograph. 

light, and the edge separating them will be invisible. If the top 
face reflects more light to the eye than the front face, it will appear 
the lighter. 

The shadow. — The shadow side of the cube is darker than the 
foreground and background, lighter than the cast shadow, and much 
lighter than the charcoal ; it is darkest at the front edge and 
gradually becomes lighter as it recedes. It is also darker near the 
bottom where the dark cast shadow reflects dark. 

The cast shadow. — The cast shadow is darkest and sharpest 
nearest the cube. The charcoal seems to cast a shadow within that 
of the cube ; but as the charcoal is wholly within the shadow of the 
cube and receives no direct rays, it is evident that the darkening of 


the cast shadow near the charcoal cannot be (Jue to the same cause 
that occasions the cast shadow of the cube. No object which is in 
the shadow of another can cast a direct shadow, for it receives no 
direct rays of light. It does, however, receive indirect rays, and 
when they are strong an object in the cast shadow, like the charcoal 
in the present case, may cut off these reflected rays so as to darken 
the cast shadow near the object, and thus practically produce the 
effect of a cast shadow. The cast shadow of the cube is darkened 
in this way in two distinct directions, and variety in the cast shadow 
is often due to this cause. 

Light reflects on foreground. — The front face of the cube reflects 
light to the foreground. If the foreground were smooth, this light 
would cause a distinct reflection bounded by two vertical lines ; but 
as the foreground is rough paper, the reflections of the edges of the 
face are not seen, and the foreground is simply lightened under and 
near the face. 

The Cylinder. 

The light and the shadow. — Half the curved surface of the 
cylinder (Fig. 5) is light and half is shadow, one base is light and the 
other is shadow, and two opposite elements of the cylinder separate 
the light part of the curved surface from the shadow. 

As the direction of the light changes, the shadow elements change 
so that the visible curved surface may be wholly light or wholly 
shadow, or both light and shadow in any proportion. 

The high light. —If the cylinder is polished and both the light 
and shadow of its curved surface are seen, the light, if sunlight, will 
strike upon the curved surface along some one element so as to be 
reflected directly to the eye, and thus give, instead of a glitter point, 
a glitter line or element.^ If the light is that of a studio, it will be 
reflected to the eye from a number of elements, and thus give a band 
of light parallel to the axis of the cylinder. The width of this band of 
glitter light depends upon the width of the window. From this high 
light the curved surface curves in each direction so that the farther 

^ As we have two eyes, there are really two glitter-'peints upon the sphere and 
two glitter elements upon the cylinder and cone, but they are near each other. 



it is from the high light, the farther from the eye it reflects the light 
which it receives ; and finally we reach the shadow elements, which 
separate the light from the shadow. The rays of sunlight are tangent 
to the surface in these elements which, receiving no direct light, 
appear very dark ; toward the high light from these elements we have 
with sunlight a broad and simple mass of light, marked by the glitter 

Fig. 5. From Photograph. 

elements and by the half light which gives the gradation into the 
shadow and which is most marked near the shadow elements. 

Gradation in the light. — With a studio light the gradation from 
light to dark is more gradual, and from the high light we find a 
gradually increasing tone which increases in strength near the 
shadow element and gradually becomes shadow. We find also in 
any light, gradation from the glitter element in opposite directions, 
so that at the contour element in the light the tone is darker than at 
any element between the contour and the glitter element. The 


drawing imperfectly represents this gradation in which there is no 
sudden change from one element to the next. 

The base in light will generally appear darkest where it comes in 
contrast with the lightest part of the curved surface. 

Gradation in the shadow. — The shadow element receives no 
direct light, and generally it receives less reflected light than the 
other elements in the shadow, so that the shadow is generally darkest 
at the shadow elements. The contour element on the shadow side is 
generally decidedly lighter than the shadow element, and between 
these elements the shadow is generally affected by reflected lights 
so that its lightest part is between the contour and the shadow 

The cast shadow. — In Fig. 5 the cast shadow is darker upon 
the vertical than upon the horizontal surface, although it may be the 
other way when the light comes from another direction. Though not 
shown by the photograph, a small part of the cast shadow nearest 
the cylinder was the darkest part of the cast shadow. The contour 
of the cast shadow is composed of straight lines, which are the 
shadows of the two shadow elements of the cylinder, and of a curve 
which is the shadow of half the circular edge of the upper base. 

Shadows soften as they recede from the object. — The softening 
of the shadow, as it recedes from the object which casts it, is due in 
all the figures to the fact that the light comes from a window several 
feet in width. From each side of this window the rays pass tangent 
to the object so that they cross each other and produce a series of 
shadows overlapping each other, and which increase gradually the 
strength of the shadow until its full depth is found beyond the 
boundary of the surface from which the cylinder cuts off part but 
not all the rays which enter the window. Near the object this par- 
tial or soft shadow covers very little space, and at the object practi- 
cally none, so that the cast shadow where it begins is very keen and 
becomes softer as it recedes, until often with a studio light it may not 
express the form of the object that causes it. 



The Cone. 

The light and the shadow. — When the cone is directed toward 
the light, all its curved surface is light and the base is shadow; when 
directed from the light, the base is light and the curved surface is 
wholly shadow. The curved surface may be both light and shadow 
in any proportion. The light and shadow are separated by elements ; 

but though they may be oppo- 
site elements, as in the cylin- 
der, the proportion of light to 
shadow would seldom be the 

The high light and the 
light. — When the curved 
surface of the cone (Fig. 6) 
is partially or wholly in light, 
one element will reflect the 
light directly to the eye and 
be the glitter or high light. 
From this high light the 
curved surface extends in 
both directions towards the 
shadow elements, which re- 
flect no direct light to the eye 
and which are the darkest 
elements. The nearer any 
element in the light is to 

Fig. 6. From Photograph. ^^^ ^^^^^^ element, the 

farther from the eye it reflects the light, and so, as in the case of the 
cylinder, there is a perfect gradation of tone from the high light to 
the deep shadow of the shadow elements. The change is gradual 
and most marked near the shadow elements in the half lights, so 
that as we go from the shadow elements toward the glitter element 
the effect is that of a mass of light. 

The shadow. — The shadow element generally reflects to the eye 
less reflected light than the other elements in the shadow, and the 
darkest shadow upon the cone is generally at the shadow element 


From the shadow element toward the contour element on the shadow 
side there is gradation due to the reflected light, which is strongest 
between the contour and shadow elemenls. The contour element 
is usually lighter than the shadow element. 

When the visible curved surface is wholly or largely shadow, the 
darkest shadow is generally on the nearer parts, and the same is true 
of the cylinder when thus placed. 

The cast shadow. — The cast shadow in Fig. 6 is bounded by 
straight lines which are the shadows of the shadow elements, and, as 
in the other figures, it is sharpest and darkest nearest the cone. 

Effects are accented at the vertex. — The light and dark are 
concentrated at the vertex of the cone and pyramid and are thus 
accented, so that the shadow on the cone is darkest and the light 
lightest nearest the vertex. 

Gradation in all parts. — Fig. 6 does not perfectly illustrate the 
effect, which should be that of a gradually increasing tone from the 
glitter element to the shadow element, and the same in the other 
direction, so that the tone at the contour element at the left should 
be darker than that upon any element between the contour and 
glitter elements. 

The Pyramid. 

A square pyramid is represented in Fig. 14 with other objects, but 
will serve to illustrate the remarks upon solids of this type. 

The light and the shadow. — If the apex is directed toward the 
light, all the lateral faces will be light and the base shadow ; if the 
apex is directed from the light, all the lateral faces will be shadow 
and the base will be light. Generally some of the faces are in light 
and others in shadow, and there is gradation and variation in all. 

The lightest face. — The lightest face is that which reflects the 
light most directly toward the eye, and it is lightest nearest the eye 
where it contrasts with the adjoining face. 

The darkest face. — The darkest face is the one which sends the 
least light to the eye ; it appears darkest along the lateral edge 
which is nearest the eye, and which separates it from the adjoining 
lighter face. 



Gradation due to perspective and to contrast. — These effects 
are due to the fact that a dark surface appears lighter as it recedes, 
and a light surface appears darker, and also to the fact that contrasts 
of light and dark, or of any two different tones, increase their difference 
where they juxtapose by causing the dark to appear darker and the 
light to appear lighter. 

Slight differences in value to be represented. — In Fig. 14 the 
base and the light lateral face appear to have the same value. In 
nature the base was slightly darker than the face; this difference 
should be expressed in any light and shade drawing after the effect 
of the masses which the illustration gives has been represented. 

Objects of Different Colors. 

A colored object has light and shadow upon it. — The solids 
represented have all been of uniform white color, and the different 
lights and darks have been due solely to the effect of light and shade. 

Fig. 7. From Photograph. 

Fig. 7 represents two spheres, one white and the other red, and 
illustrates the fact that there is light and shade upon a dark object 
just as there is upon a white one. The difference between the light 
and dark is not as great upon the red sphere as upon the white, but 


there is the contrast of the same masses of light and dark, and in 
each mass there are the same gradations as in the corresponding 
mass upon the white sphere. The red sphere, however, appears 
lighter at the left part of its contour than nearer the high light. This 
is due to the fact that the sphere was highly polished, and reflected 
so much light from the surrounding objects that the effect of the 
principal light from the window was destroyed by the strong reflec- 

The shadows differ in values. — A piece of charcoal is seen in 
the shadow of the red sphere. It appears much darker than the 
sphere, and illustrates the fact which students always fail to realize, 
— that color always shows through the shadows so that the shadows 
upon objects of different colors and luminosity are always of different 

Cast shadows reflect dark. — The cast shadows are much sharper 
and darker near the spheres than farther away, and they reflect upon 
the spheres so as to darken the parts near the contours. 

The high light prominent in a dark object. — The high light is 
much more noticeable upon the red sphere than upon the white one, 
for the spheres are polished, and though the red one does not reflect 
as much light as the white one, its high light in contrast with the 
dark red color seems more prominent than that of the white sphere, 
in contrast with white. 

A dark color may appear lighter than a light color. — The figure 
illustrates these principles, but does not give all the relations truly. 
It is the first to show the most important effect of light and shade 
upon colors which is to make the light of a dark color often appear 
lighter than the shadow of a light color. 

The Same Subject under Different Lights. 

The illustrations studied have represented the effects due to a 
studio, the light coming from the left and from above and behind 
the spectator. We will now compare the effects produced upon the 
same objects by lights from different directions and of different kinds 
and strengths. 



A North Studio Light. 

Light at the side. — Fig. 8 represents a group of white drawing 
models placed in a studio upon a shelf and against a background 
covered with dark gray cartridge paper, the light coming from above 
at the left and slightly behind the spectator. The effects of light 

Fig. 8. From Photograph. 

and shade upon the different objects are such as have been described, 
but owing to the imperfections of the photograph and its reproduc- 
tion, the gradations in the masses of light upon the different objects 
are not well expressed. Thus the left-hand contour of the cone 
should be darker than any element between it and the glitter element. 
This element does not appear, but should be about as far from the 
left contour as the shadow element is from the right contour ; and 
the shade upon the sphere should gradually increase in strength from 
the high light toward the contour in all directions ; and that upon the 


cylinder should increase from the lightest element, which is about 
midway between the contour elements, toward the contour elements in 
both directions. The figure does not show that one of the lights of 
the group is lighter than all the others, and one of the darks is 
darker than all others, but it does give the effect of the principal 
masses of light and dark which it should be the first aim of the 
student to obtain. 

Cast shadows show forms of objects. — The cast shadows of the 
plinth, the sphere, and the cube upon the cylinder show the form of 
the cylinder and also the forms of the different objects casting the 
shadows. The shadow of the pencil upon the vertical side of the 
plinth extends very faintly towards the shadow of the pencil upon 
the foreground, for the rays of light causing the shadow cross each 
other as explained on page 11, so that the shadow is dark only very 
near the pencil. 

Narrow shadows must be represented. — The plinth does not 
rest evenly upon the shelf, so that we see under it slightly at the 
central part of the light side, and a narrow shadow is produced. 
This shadow is lightened by diffused light from the strong light rays 
sent to the eye from the surrounding parts, but it is an important 
detail and should be represented ; and the advice which is given on 
page 99 to avoid outlines does not refer to such a place as this 
where the effect of an outline is given by a narrow shadow or by a 
narrow edge which catches the light. 

Studio lights give soft shadows. — The cast shadow of the cone 
on the background illustrates the fact that with a studio light the 
crossing rays from a large window so soften the shadows that often 
they do not suggest the forms of the objects which cast them. 

Foreground lighter than background. — The mass of the light of 
the foreground is lighter than that of the background, and illustrates 
the usual effect of the values when foreground and background are 
of the same material and color. The foreground is lighter because 
it generally reflects more light to the eye, and also because it collects 
in a short time dust which lightens its effect, unless the foreground 
is very light. The value due to dust should be represented, as it 
can hardly be kept away from a subject to be studied several 



Sunlight at the Side. 

Fig. 9 represents the same group when exposed to the direct rays of 
the sun from a direction about the same as that of the light in Fig. 8. 

Effects are light. — The first point to be noticed is that the effect 
is much lighter than that of Fig. 8. This is due to the fact that out- 

FiG. 9. From Photograph. 

doors there are strong reflected lights coming from all directions 
which lighten all shadows and cast shadows to a great extent. 

Cast shadows are sharp. — Next we notice that the cast shadows 
are as sharp and distinct as the edges of the objects. This is always 
the case when the cast shadows are near the objects that cast them. 
On the other hand, the greater the distance between any edge and 
its shadow, the softer is the contour of the shadow, because the rays 
of sunlight are not quite parallel, and thus soften the cast shadows 
which are distant, as explained on page 11. 


Gradation in shadows and cast shadows. — The cast shadows 
are sharp in outline and more nearly of one value than in Fig. 8, but 
there is gradation in them and also in the shadows. Thus the 
cast shadow of the plinth upon the cylinder reflects dark upon the 
shadow side of the plinth and upon the cast shadow of the plinth 
on the foreground. The shadow side of the plinth has nearly the 
same value as the foreground, instead of being darker as in Fig. 8. 

Directions of cast shadows. — The cast shadow of the pencil is a 
continuous band which runs along the shelf, then up on the vertical 
side of the plinth, and then along upon the top of the plinth, where 
its direction is the same as upon the shelf, for when the shadow of any 
line falls upon parallel surfaces the shadow has the same direction on 
€ach surface. 

The cast shadow of the pencil upon the shelf and of the cone upon 
the background are curved by the uneven surface of the paper. 

A Studio Light behind the Spectator. 

Effect is a mass of light. — Fig. lo represents the same group 
placed in a studio and lighted by a window directly behind the spec- 
tator. This light causes the visible surfaces of the objects to be light 
surfaces and the effect of the whole group to be that of a mass of 
light, for the cast shadows are behind the group and are largely 
invisible. The objects are distinguished from each other by slight 
differences in value, and the gradations of tone upon any one are 
very delicate. The cone, cylinder, and sphere each have a glitter 
point or line. These lights are upon the nearest parts of all the 
solids, and from them there is a tone which gradually increases in 
strength towards the contours. The plinth also has a part which 
is lighter than any other part of its surface ; but high lights are 
seldom found upon polyhedrons, even when their surfaces are pol- 
ished, for in order to glitter a plane surface must as a whole reflect 
the light directly towards the eye. 

Little contrast of light with shadow. — The visible cast shadows 
are small in Fig. 10, and are always small when the light is behind 
the spectator, unless they are cast by parts which overhang and 
cause cast shadows to fall upon the visible light surfaces. There is 



also seldom the contrast of a light surface with a shadow surface, 
and therefore in general very little contrast of light and dark. 

Effects too difficult for students. — This position of the light is 
not suitable for students. It requires the ability of an artist to 
represent solidity and atmosphere by the delicate gradations given 

Fig. io. From Photograph. 

by a light behind the artist, no matter whether the light be that of a 
studio, sunlight, or any other light. 

Contrasts are largely due to color. — The principal contrasts of 
light and dark with this light are generally due mpre to contrasts 
of local color than to contrasts of light and shade. 

The processes employed to make the illustrations do not give the 
fine contrasts of the light, the glitter light, and the more delicate 
gradations which the student must observe by study of nature. In 
this case the pencil is the only dark object in the group and the 
only one which shows the glitter light. 

Objects reflect strongly in the foreground. — The reflected light 
from the end of the cylinder to the foreground is so strong that even on 



the rough paper it gives a clear reflection of the edge of the cylinder. 
The cast shadow of the camera fell upon the foreground and 
darkened it ; were it not for this shadow, the nearest part of the 
foreground would be the lightest. 

A Studio Light in Front of the Spectator. 

Effect largely shadow. — Fig. 1 1 represents the group when 
placed in front of a studio window. ' This position causes the visible 
surfaces to be largely shadow surfaces. 

The light strikes, however, the top parts of the cube, the cylinder, 
the sphere, and the plinth, and these surfaces are light ; but in out- 

FiG. II. From Photograph. 

door subjects the upper surfaces of objects are generally invisible, 
and there is less light than in Fig. ii. 

The cast shadows are dark and prominent in the effect, as they 
are wholly visible and extend toward the spectator. Fig. ii, in con- 



trast with Fig. lo, presents a mass of dark which is the general 
effect indoors or outdoors when the light is behind the objects ; it 
also shows that the shadow surfaces with the cast shadows form the 
larger part of the subject. 

Strongest shadows on the nearest parts. — The increase in the 
strength of the shadow upon the cone towards its vertex is well 
shown, and also the fact that the strongest darks are generally on the 
parts nearest the eye. 

Strongest lights on the contours. — The strongest lights are on 
or near the contours of the objects. On the pencil the glitter light 
is at the contour, and makes the black pencil lighter than the light 
parts behind it. 

Diffused Studio Light. 

Fig. 1 2 represents the same group when it is lighted by weak dif- 
fused light coming from both sides and from behind the spectator, 

Fig. 12. From Photograph. 


and producing about the same effect as would be obtained in a room 
having several windows whose curtains are drawn. 

Delicate light and shade contrasts. — We find there are several 
faint, soft shadows and no strong contrasts. In this respect the effect 
is similar to that of Fig. 10, but very much darker, — a fact not well 
shown by the figure. 

Dark objects may have strong lights. — The glitter light upon 
the pencil is prominent, and well illustrates the fact that even the 
darkest objects whose surfaces are polished may have upon them 
the strongest lights of the group. 

Artificial Light at the Side. 

Fig. 13 represents the same group when exposed to the rays of a 
very powerful lamp placed near the group. 

Strong contrasts of light and shade. — The effect is due to the 
contrast of strong lights and deep shadows, and at first glance we 

Fig. 13. From Photograph. 


feel the simplicity of the masses of light and shadow. Fig. 13 makes 
these masses more simple than they really were, for it does not give 
the delicate gradations. The light and dark upon the cone, for 
instance, would, except near its base, represent a pyramid ; for there 
is so little gradation near the shadow element that the idea of round- 
ness is not well expressed. Upon the sphere the circle (ellipse) 
that separates light from shadow is also very sharp. 

Sharp and dark shadows. — Sharpness is, however^ a distinguish- 
ing feature of the shadows of objects that are exposed to one strong 
artificial light, and the stronger the light, the greater the contrast 
between the masses of light and shadow, and the less the gradation 
from one to the other upon rounded objects. There is, of course, 
gradation upon rounded objects, but it is very delicate through all 
the mass of the light, and is principally confined to a very small 
space near the shadow element. 

Masses of dark very simple. — Another effect characteristic of 
a single artificial light is the strength and simplicity of the masses 
of shadow formed by the shadows and cast shadows. The base 
of the cylinder and the cast shadow of the cylinder illustrate a 
common effect, namely, that in which the shadow and cast shadow 
adjoining are nearly of- the same value. The shadow side of the 
cube illustrates another effect, that in which the shadow and cast 
shadow are of the same, or so nearly the same, value that the 
contour of the object is lost in the mass of shadow. The student 
who works with light and dark or with color should be careful not 
to represent contours which cannot be seen, for much of the interest 
and artistic effect of the drawing depends upon its being true to 
nature in this respect. 


Simple masses. — The given illustrations cover the most common 
effects with the exception of those due to moonlight. Moonlight is 
simply weakened sunlight, and produces effects similar to those of 
sunlight in respect to the contrast of simple masses of light and 
dark and the sharpness of the cast shadows. The principal masses 
of light and dark are much more prominent than by sunlight, and 
few details are seen in the masses. The masses of dark are espe- 


cially simple, for reflected lights are very weak, and often not 

Moonlight gives an interest to nature which should lead the art 
student to realize the beauty of simplicity and the charm of mystery. 
By moonlight the most common and familiar subject often possesses 
a beauty which is not felt at all when all the details of the sub- 
ject are brought out by daylight ; and the student will do well to 
compare the daylight and moonlight effects upon the same subject, 
for in this way he will discover the beauty of the contrasts of simple 
masses and important lines, which are often not felt in the stronger 

Light from Several Sources. 

Shown by cast shadows principally. — The effects due to the 
light of a room and to artificial light may be, and generally are, 
greatly varied by the crossing of light from several sources* The 
principal effect of several lights is seen in the cast shadows, where 
the cast shadow due to any light may be followed just as if it were 
the only cast shadow. Any one cast shadow is darkened where a 
second shadow falls upon it ; but the contour of the second may be 
seen as distinctly as that of the first, and any number of cast shadows 
caused by different lights may be clearly seen, the strongest part of 
the cast shadow being the part which receives the greatest number 
of different cast shadows, and being central and nearest the object. 

Light and Shade Effects upon Objects of Different Colors. 

Having compared the principal effects of light and shade, and 
also those due to different lights upon the same subject, we will 
study in detail the effects of light and shade upon objects of differ- 
ent colors, beginning with the high light and ending with the cast 

The High Light. 

Is influenced by smoothness of surface. — The strength of the 
high light depends upon that of the illuminating light, and upon the 
smoothness of the surface which reflects it ; the smoother the sur- 



face the brighter the high light, and the more perfectly it reflects 
the color of the illuminating light. A polished metal vase or any- 
glazed object will give a perfect image of the source of the light. 
In a studio, for instance, it will reflect the window with its cross- 
bars, and the color of the high light will be that of the sky or what- 
ever else sends the light through the window to the object. 

Is colored. — Pupils are generally so deceived by the brightness 

Fig. 14. From Photograph. 

of high lights, especially those on dark glazed objects, that they fail 
to see any color in them, and represent them by pure white, even 
when they have a white object in the group. They should remem- 
ber that such lights always reflect the color of the light causing 
them, and are darkened by the color of the object on which the 
light falls. If they will try the experiment of blurring the form out of 
any high light by holding the blur glass as far from them as possible, 
still obtaining in it the image of the high light, they will readily see 
the color blue in case the object reflects the blue sky. This experi- 



ment shows that the high light upon a glazed object may be darker 
than that upon a white object, even if unglazed. 

Varies upon different colors. — Every object reflects directly 
some white light. The remainder of the white light enters the 

Fig. 15. From Photograph. 

object a little distance where some is absorbed, and the remainder is 
turned back and reflected in all directions, the reflected rays having 
the same color as the object. Now a dark object reflects less of 
the light which enters its surface than a light object, and hence the 
high lights upon polished objects of different colors are not equally 
light when the surfaces are equally smooth. By contrast the high 


light upon a dark glazed object may appear lighter than that upon 
a light and equally glazed object, but it is really not as light. 

Generally a colored object is not a smooth and perfect mirror, 
and the color of the object is felt quite strongly through the high 
lights. For this reason the reflected color is often darkened so that 
the high light on the glazed blue vase, for instance, in Fig. 15, is 
not as light as the light upon the white cast, which is quite rough 
in comparison with the vase. The rougher the objects, the more 
light they absorb, and the more irregularly they reflect what is not 
absorbed ; and in place of high lights there will be on unpolished 
objects, such, for instance, as common plaster casts, lights which 
gradually grade into the delicate shades that are seen in the mass 
of the light. 

Local color not seen in high light. — The local colors of objects 
are not seen in the high lights, even when the objects are not pol- 
ished ; for when the high lights do not reflect the color of the light, 
they are so heightened by the strong light they receive that they do 
not give the effect of the local color of the object ; and as a matter 
of fact the high lights upon the human face are often cool and even 
bluish in tone. 

Generally caused by rounded surfaces. — Glazed objects which 
are round or bounded by curved surfaces will generally have high 
lights in any position of the spectator. A plane surface which glit- 
ters throughout must be very small. When an object bounded by 
plane surfaces is so placed that one surface glitters, the slightest 
change in the position of the eye may entirely change the effect ; for 
a surface which glitters with the eye in one position will not glitter 
if the eye is moved a short distance, and instead of appearing the 
highest light, it may appear dark if its local color is dark. 

Varied in form. — The form of the glitter light is dependent upon 
that of the window or other source of light, and also upon that of 
the object. Upon a curved surface straight lines generally reflect 
as curved, and upon a plane surface they reflect as straight. 

Iridescent color. — The most beautiful color effects are found in 
the high lights upon iridescent objects, and the study of these lights 
will assist the student to realize how changeable are the colors and 
the values of the same object. 



Must be carefully drawn. — The effect of a glazed object can 
be given only by carefully drawing the high lights upon it, and they 
must be represented with decision,^ for when gradually softened into 
the mass of light, the effect of an unglazed object is given. 

Found upon every rounded part. — A high light is found upon 
every polished surface whose position is such that it reflects the 

Fig. 16. From Photograph. 

light directly into the eyes. In Fig. 16 there are two lights upon 
the body of the bottle, because there were two divisions in the 
window from which the light came. Fig. 14 shows how high lights 
are found upon the edges of objects, and upon all ridges or mould- 
ings. Figs. 15, 17, and 18 show that these high lights are found in 
relatively the same position upon the different curved parts of the 
same object, so that they may be said to exist on a single element 

^ See page 99. 


of the surface. In the cone and cylinder the element is straight, 
but in the bottle or vase the corresponding line or element is curved, 
and may be regarded as the outline of a section of the object made 
by a plane passing through the axis ; it is foreshortened so that, in 
Fig. i8, for instance, if the light were directly behind the spectator, 
the different high lights upon the vase would come in one vertical 
line, — the center line of the vase. 

The Light. 

The effect of the light upon the principal geometric solids has 
been studied, and it has been shown that without regard to the color, 
any object has a light side and a shadow side, and that there is 
light and shade upon even the blackest object. 

Strongest on the lightest object. — When objects are of different 
colors, the lightest color will reflect the most light, and the light side 
of a white object will be lighter than the light side of a yellow object 
which has the same position ; and if the positions of all the objects 
with respect to the light are the same, the light of the yellow is lighter 
than that of an orange object ; that of the orange is lighter than 
green, the green than red, the red than blue, the blue than violet, 
and the violet is lighter than black.^ It is well for students to undei:- 
stand this fact, but they must remember that they cannot apply thfe 
principle instead of observation of nature; for the different colors 
in nature will not be placed so they receive equal amounts of light, 
and consequently any color, as orange, or even a darker color, may 
receive so much light as to appear lighter than yellow or even white, 
which may happen to be so placed that it reflects less light to the 
eyes than the darker color. 

Photographs of colors not true in values. — Photographs do not 
give the values of colors ; thus photographs of yellow are much too 
dark and those of blue are too light. The yellow bottle in Fig. 20 
seems almost as dark as the upright vase, which was green, and darker 
than the bottle; and the vase in Fig. 15 seems quite light, while the 
object was dark blue. But the photographs which are reproduced 
bring out the most important fact regarding the mass of the light of 

^ The colors are supposed to be the six standard spectrum colors. 


any object; for they all show how simple it is, and artistically they 
are much more satisfactory than they would be if they gave all the 
detail the eye could see, but at the expense of the loss of the broad 
mass of light. 

The student exaggerates detail in the light. — The entire leaf in 
Fig. 15 is covered with veins which the light side of the leaf hardly 
suggests. In attempting to represent these veins the student is 
almost certain to exaggerate their strength so that the effect of this 
half of the leaf is that of a mass of gray, or more often of a series 
of bands of light and dark alternating. The student exaggerates 
because contrast effects make detail seem stronger than it really is, 
and also because the eye sees only a small part at one time, and 
that part with the amount of light which the eye receives adjusted 
so as to bring out all details of this part. Thus if we go from the 
sunlight into a darkened room, we see at first none of the objects in 
the room, but gradually the pupil of the eye expands to admit more 
light; and if the room is not too dark, the objects appear one after 
another, until the eye is fully adjusted to the light and all objects 
are seen. If now we go into the sunlight, we are blinded by the 
light, and the light sides of objects seem a blaze of light with no 
detail, until the pupil closes and shuts out most of the light. When 
this has happened, a surface which seemed one uniform glaring light 
is seen to be covered with detail. 

The value of any part seen only by comparison. — It is evident 
that the true effect of any object cannot be seen if the student fixes 
his eye upon either its mass of light or its mass of dark, for his eye 
will adjust to the light or the shadow, as the case may be, so that no 
detail is seen except in the part studied ; thus the detail is not seen 
in its proper relations to the whole, and detail can only be seen in 
its real relations as explained in Chap. II. The aim of the serious 
art student in looking at detail should be to study its form and 
determine its value by looking, not at the detail alone or the parts 
about it, but rather at all of them at once. 

Causes dark color to appear lighter than light color. — The 
most important effect of the light is to lighten all that it strikes 
upon, so that a dark color appears lighter than a light color which 
receives or reflects less light. This is shown by the red sphere of 


Fig. 7 and the blue vase of Fig. 15, which, though too light in the 
light, is still true to the fact that in nature the dark blue appeared 
very much lighter than the cast shadow upon the cast. In Fig. 16 
the contour of the black bottle appears lighter than the gray back- 
ground. In Fig. 18 the green vase is lighter than the gray cast, and 
in Fig. 20 the green vase is in some parts of the light lighter than 
the background, in other parts of the same value, and in some places 
the light is darker than the background. 

Lightens and destroys detail. — Another effect which is difficult 
for the student to see is that the light often partially or wholly hides 
detail which is known to exist. Thus in B'ig. 15, on the left-hand 
part of the leaf, we find between the outer edge and the midrib 
representations of veins which extend continuously, but which are 
seen only at their central parts. Similar effects are found in Fig. 
18, and these figures illustrate the common case in which continu- 
ous detail in the object is situated so as to receive the light at differ- 
ent angles, and be visible for part of its length only. The student 
who sees the central part of a detail whose form he knows, is very 
apt to think he sees it all, and represents its entire length ; he is 
especially apt to draw the whole when he sees the two ends of a 
detail whose central part cannot be seen, and he must be very care- 
ful to draw no more than he sees, for without the careful observation 
which notes every place in which the light obliterates the detail, an 
artistic drawing cannot be made. 

Lightens small shadows and cast shadows within it. — Not 
only does the light hide details which are brought out by light tones 
of shade, but it softens details which are shown by small bits of 
shadow or cast shadow which come in the mass of the light. When 
looked at directly, these shadows may seem the darkest ones of the 
object, but when the eyes are blurred they will appear much lighter 
than the large masses of shadow. Thus in Fig. 15 the narrow 
shadow formed by the midrib at the top of the leaf will probably 
appear to the student darker than the wide shadow the leaf casts 
on its background, or even darker than the cast shadow of the object 
on the panelling. The narrow shadow on the leaf is really lighter 
than the cast shadow of the leaf, for it is lightened by the strong 
rays of light from the parts about it, which are diffused and slightly 



blended with the rays from the narrow shadow. In all cases a narrow 
shadow between two surfaces, in the light, and nearly in line with 
each other, will appear lightest where it is narrowest, and if a space 
separating two surfaces becomes very nafrow, the light about the 
narrow shadow may be strong enough to nearly obliterate it. The 



'' j^^^EI 

k 1 




Fig. 17. From Photograph. 

narrow line of cast shadow under the plinth in Fig. 14 illustrates 
this point ; it is much lighter under the lightest part of the plinth 
than under the nearer and darker part of the plinth. The figure 
also shows how strong light hides the form, for in the strong light 
the upper edges of the pyramid and the plinth are barely visible. 

Infringes upon narrow darks within it. — The black pencil in 
Figs. 8 to 13 inclusive also shows how light infringes upon and 
weakens narrow darks, for the pencil seems smaller where it comes in 


front of the light plinth than where it is seen against the gray back- 
ground; and the greater the contrast of light and dark in the group, 
the greater the difference between the apparent diameters of the two 
parts of the pencil. 

Hides soft shadows. — Fig. 1 7 shows again the way in which 
darks are lightened by the strong lights near them. The shadow of 
the cover cast upon the light face of the plinth seems at first glance 
to come within the shadow of the cover cast upon the foreground, 
instead of beginning where the shadow upon the horizontal surface 
meets the vertical surface of the plinth. This effect is often noticed, 
but careful observation will show a soft shadow on the vertical 
surface which continues the soft shadow on the foreground, but is so 
much lighter than that on the shelf that at first it is not noticed.| 
The soft shadow on the vertical is less prominent than that on the 
horizontal, because it is lightened by the strong light of the surface 
which receives it. 

The Half Light. 

Brings out detail and local color. — The full light changes or 
hides the color and often makes detail invisible, but the parts of the 
light between the full light and the shadow bring out the local color, 
and make all the detail most prominent. Fig. 5 is from a photograph 
of a wooden cylinder painted white with a brush whose marks were 
plainly seen, and which show slightly in the figure in the half light 
only. The brush marks upon the cone. Fig. 6, and upon the plinth,: 
Fig. 14, also show in the half light. The veins in the leaves 01 
Figs. 15 and 18 are most prominent in the tones between the strong 
lights and the shadows. In Fig. 16 the creases in the tinfoil upon 
the bottle are seen more plainly between the light and the shadow 
than in either the light or the shadow. 

Detail in half light must be carefully drawn. — The irregulari- 
ties of surface on the plums, Fig. 18, are seen most plainly near the 
dividing lines of light and shade, and the rings about the vase are 
more prominent in the half light than elsewhere. The student must 
study detail in the half light most carefully, for this detail is most 
prominent, and gives the character of the object more than detail 
•either in full light or in shadow. 


The Shadow. 

Does not show detail or local color — The effect of the shadow 
upon detail is similar to that of the light, detail being lost for lack 
of light, and local color being so changed that it would often not be 
known from the color of the shadow. 

Varies in value. — The values of objects of different colors are 
not changed relatively by shadows when they are placed so as to 
receive equal amounts of the reflected lights ; thus yellow in shadow 
is lighter than orange in shadow, and so on. But the student can- 
not determine the values of the different shadows by any theory; 
for the objects which receive them reflect light so differently that 
observation alone can determine the values, and the value of a light 
object may be darker than that of a much darker one. 

At first the student will have great difficulty in seeing any differ- 
ence between the different shadows of the group, and he may be 
assisted by thinking of the local colors, as the values of the shadows 
will often be in harmony with the values of the local colors. In 
Fig. 15, for instance, to most students the shadow on the cast will 
seem as dark or even darker than that of the cast on the panelling ; 
but if the student thinks of the local colors of the two surfaces, — 
or better still, blurs his eyes and tries to decide what colors he would 
use if painting the subject with colors, — he will often be assisted 
to see the true values of the shadows. 

Dividing line of light and shade important. — When objects are 
bounded by edges, the edges define the shadow surfaces ; but when 
objects are bounded by curved surfaces, the shadows are not 
sharply defined, but grade into the light and produce the intermediate 
tones called half light. It is very important that the dividing line 
of light and shade be carefully drawn throughout, and when it is 
upon a rounded object the greatest pains must be taken that the 
gradation does not destroy the effect of the general direction of the 
line ; this shows when the eyes are blurred so that the masses of 
light and dark are seen. 

Defined by an element. — In the cylinder or cone the shadow is 
defined by an element ; in common objects which are variations of 
the type forms, the dividing line of light and shade will not always 


conform to a foreshortened section of the object through the axis^ 
but it may often, in parts, become practically the element of a short 
cone or cylinder ; and if its direction is not truly given upon parts 
which are cylindrical or conical, their forms cannot be well expressed. 

Reflected Light. 

Varies in strength. — With any given illumination the strength 
of reflected lights depends upon the smoothness of the objects on 
which they are found, and upon their surroundings. A mirror in the 
form of a sphere would reflect the forms and colors of objects about 
it so perfectly that the effects of light and shadow would be entirely 
destroyed by the reflections. Perfect reflecting surfaces are seldom 
found in common objects, but polished silverware gives a near 
approach to perfect reflection ; the reflection is sharp and gives 
clearly the form and color of the objects reflected. Polished objects 
give clear reflections of dark objects as well as of light ones ; and, to 
be exact, we should require another division of the effects due to 
light and shade, namely, reflected darks. These reflected darks are 
generally considered as the parts of the shadow which are not light- 
ened by reflected lights. The student, however, should not study 
from objects whose surfaces are highly polished until quite proficient 
in representing the simple effects of light and shade upon unpolished 

Makes the shadow visible. — The "light" of any object is the 
surface upon which direct rays of light fall. By direct rays is meant 
rays from the sun, the moon, or any artificial light, and also the rays 
from the window by which any studio or room is lighted. That part 
of the surface of any object which receives no direct rays is called 
the "shadow," and the lightest parts of any shadow surface are 
called the "reflected lights." Shadow surfaces receive no direct rays 
and would appear uniformly dark if they did not receive light which 
is reflected to them from the light surfaces of objects about them. 
If not for this indirect and irregularly reflected light shadow sur- 
faces would be visible as darks by reason of the light surfaces about 
them, but no detail would be seen in any shadow surface. But, as 
a matter of fact, every part of the surface of any object receives 


light which is irregularly reflected to it from all directions; and the 
stronger these reflected rays, the lighter are the shadow surfaces, 
and the more prominent is any detail in them. 

In Fig. 16 the light top of the plinth is reflected in the bottle as a 
decided form, bounded by curved lines meeting at points which are 
the reflections of the corners ; and the plinth in Fig. 17 is reflected 
in a similar way in the bottle upon it. 

Is generally dark. — Objects less smooth than the bottles of Figs. 
16 and 17 have reflected lights which cause slight gradations in the 
mass of the shadow (see Fig. 18); and generally the student will find 
that in the effect of the whole, reflected lights are not lights but 
darks, which are simply less dark than the strongest parts of the 

In looking at detail, whether in the mass of the light or in the 
mass of shadow, the student should blur his eyes and see if the 
detail belongs to the light or to the dark. He should ask himself, 
"Does the detail appear light or dark in the effect of the whole?" 
The tendency is to exaggerate the reflected lights in the shadow 
just as much as the grays in the mass of the light, and if the student 
does not often apply the tests explained in Chap. II, he will not 
realize that generally the lights which he sees in the mass of the 
shadow are darks, and the grays which he sees in the mass of the 
light are lights. 

May come in the light. — The light top of the plinth in Fig. 14 
gives bright reflections on the bands upon the lower part of the 
pitcher. These are reflected lights, though they come in the mass of 
the light upon the pitcher, and we see that a light object may so 
reflect that it lightens the light as well as the shadow of any object. 
The reflection of any light object upon any surface in light or in 
shadow is never as light as the reflected object, and the reflection of 
a dark object is not as dark as the object, for the light reflection is 
darkened by losing the light which the reflecting surface absorbs, 
while the dark reflection is lightened by the surface reflecting dif- 
fused light received from other objects. 


The Cast Shadow. 

Generally a strong dark. — The cast shadows are generally the 
darkest parts of any subject, and together with the shadows are often 
visible when the light surfaces of the objects are invisible. They 
show the shapes of the objects casting them, and also those of the 
objects receiving them, and are most important features of any 

Varies in value. — The value of a cast shadow depends upon the 
color of the surface receiving it, and when surfaces of different colors 
are placed so that they all receive the shadow of any object, the 
shadow will be darkest upon the darkest color if the different colors 
-receive equal amounts of reflected light. This would, however, 
seldom happen, and only study of nature will produce a true drawing. 

Darker than light or shadow. — Cast shadows are generally 
darker than shadows and all light surfaces, but no rule can be 
stated, for the cast shadovv on a light color' is often lighter than the 
shadow upon a darker color, and the cast shadow on a light color 
may be lighter than the light side of a dark object. Thus the cast 
shadow of a dark tree-trunk upon white snow is lighter than the 
light side of the tree-trunk, and in Fig. 17 the cast shadow of the 
cover upon the plinth is about the same value as the light upon 
the cover. 

Varies in sharpness. — Shadows cast by sunlight and by artificial 
light are sharply defined ; those by studio light are sharp near the 
objects that cast them, and softer as they recede. Shadows cast by 
a studio light are varied by reflected lights as much as are the 
shadows, but by sunlight or by artificial light cast shadows upon any 
surface are more nearly of uniform value. 

Masses with the shadow. — The cast shadow and the shadow of 
any object generally form a mass of dark, which in contrast with the 
mass of the light produce the effect of the object. When the object 
is not near the eye, these masses are very prominent, and often no 
detail can be seen in them. 

Hides contours and detail. — As already explained, unimportant 
detail disappears in the shadow, and in the same way it disappears 
in the cast shadow, and often even the form or contour of an object 



Fig. i8. From Photograph. 

is lost in the darkness of the cast shadow. Thus the lower right 
contours of the bottle in Fig. i6 and the pot in Fig. 17 are invisible 
for a little distance, and the contour of the 
cylinder in Figs. 8, 9, and 13 is lost in the 
shadow thrown upon it by the plinth. The con- 
tour should not be represented when it is not 
seen, for much of the charm of the best artistic 
work is due to the subordination of detail, and 
disappearance in part of the contours, due to 
the shadow and cast shadows. 

Must be carefully drawn. — The importance 
of carefully drawing the dividing line of light 
and shade on all objects has been mentioned, 
and from what has been said the student will 
realize that careful drawing of the cast shadows Fig. 19. 


is of no less importance. The drawing of the masses of dark which 
are bounded by the dividing lines of light and shade, and the out- 
lines of the cast shadows will often do more to suggest the object 
than a correct contour ; but if these parts are correctly drawn, the 
contours will probably be in correct drawing. In general as much 
attention should be given to the forms of the shadows and cast 
shadows as to the contours. 

Helps in the drawing. — The forms of the shadows and cast 
shadows are often easier to see than those of the contours which 
are often invisible in parts, and generally the shadows are seen first 
and contours last ; therefore, in light and shade study it is natural 
that the student begin with the lights and the shadows instead of 
with the contours. 

Blends with the shadow. — Upon objects such as those of Fig. 
1 8 the cast shadow and shadows often blend together. Thus the 
cast shadow of the leaf in light passes around the plum and into the 
shadow upon the plum. Upon the vase each projecting ring or 
band about its surface casts a narrow shadow, which passes around 
the vase and loses itself in the shadow on the vase. Such cast 
shadows are visible only upon the light of the object, and never 
extend into the shadow to darken it. They are sharpest and darkest 
nearest the parts that cast them, and they must be drawn with great 
care. The same care must be exercised in drawing the dividing 
line of light and shade upon even the smallest details of the object. 
Fig. 19 indicates the mass of dark formed by the shadow and cast 
shadows upon the top of the vase, and the student must study such 
details as carefully as they are indicated in the figure. 

Other Effects. 

Several lights. — The effects due to the most common lights 
have been briefly explained, and the student will understand that 
they may be varied in many ways. Instead of one window a room 
may have several windows. Most rooms not intended for studios 
have several windows, and the effects of light and shade that may 
be seen are very numerous. Instead of one artificial light there 
may be many, in which case the shadows will clearly and sharply 



cross each other, so that the darkest spot will be that receiving 
the greatest number of separate shadows. These shadows may be 
traced clearly through each other just as different washes applied 
with a brush over washes previously dried are each clearly seen. 

Daylight and lamplight ; rules impossible. — An object may 
at the same -time be exposed to daylight and to' artificial light, and 

Fig. 20. From Photograph. 

the light and shade and color effects of any simple subject may 
be so infinitely varied that the absurdity of the attempts of those 
who give rules for the production of drawings which shall represent 
nature's effects is obvious. No one can say how much light there 
should be or how much shadow, and all that is written upon this 
subject should be carefully studied to see that it does not attempt 
the impossible. Leonardo da Vinci says that "the shadows and lights 
should be united or lost in each other without any hard strokes 
or lines ; as smoke loses itself in the air, so are your lights and 
shadows to pass from the one to the other without any apparent 



separation." But even so noted a man as he should not be accepted 
literally, without study, and if this statement or any other statement 

Fig. 21. From Study by Leonardo da Vinci. 

does not agree with nature, or with the artist's own drawings, which 
have been accepted as good, the student may conclude that the 
artist did not say just what he meant. 

Fig. 21 is from a study of drapery by Leonardo da Vinci, and 
shows the care with which the greatest artists work and study, even 


after they become famous. It also shows that the advice as to the 
softening of the shadows into the lights n>eans not what the average 
reader would suppose, but simply that there must be the gradation 
of the half lights from the shadow to the light, as previously 
explained. Art students when given such a subject as Fig. 21, 
often attempt to make the drawing without carefully studying any 
of the lights, shadows, reflected lights, etc., of the subject, and if 
asked to draw them all as carefully as in the figure, they feel that 
they are imposed upon, and that such study of detail is mechanical 
and unnecessary. 

Fig. 21 shows the careful drawing which characterizes the artist 
and which he puts into the most important parts of all his work ; 
and the student should be content to study nature carefully until he 
knows that he can, if necessary, draw all detail that he sees without 
destroying the masses of light and dark which are the first in the 
effect felt, though generally the last that the student succeeds in 
representing truly. 

Important Principles. 

No rules for the production of drawings can be stated, but the 
elementary student will be assisted to see correctly if he understands 
that nature's effects are generally in harmony with the following 
principles : 

1. Objects are seen through contrasts of masses of light and 
masses of dark. 

2. Appearances of light and dark are relative, any tone being 
light in comparison with darker tones, and being dark in comparison 
with lighter tones. 

3. The shadow and cast shadow form together a mass of dark, 
in which, especially when objects are at a distance, details are 
hidden. This mass of dark, in contrast with the mass of light, 
expresses the forms of the objects, and is thus of first importance to 
the student of light and shade. 

4. The mass of light causes much of the detail in it to dis- 
appear, and lightens the effect of all small shadows within it so 
that whatever detail is seen in the light does not destroy the effect 
of the mass. 



5. In any subject there is one light which is lighter than all 
others, and one dark which is darker than all the others. 

6. When Ir^t and dark are juxtaposed, the light seems lightest 
nearest the dark, and the dark appears darkest nearest the light. 

7. A retreating shadow surface or dark object appears darkest 
nearest the eye. 

8. A retreating light surface or light object appears lightest 
nearest the eye. 

9. Of two dark objects of the same color and in the same light, 
the nearer appears the darker. 

10. Of two light objects of the same color and in the same light, 
the nearer appears the lighter. 

11. The cast shadow of any object is darkest and sharpest in out- 
line nearest the object which casts it. 

12. When the shadow of any object falls upon two intersecting 
surfaces, for instance, a horizontal surface supporting a vertical, the 
shadow must pass continuously from one to the other, and change 
its direction at the intersection of the two surfaces. 

13. The shadow of a straight line upon a plane surface is a 
straight line. 

14. The shadow of a straight line upon a curved surface generally 
appears curved. 

15. When a sphere is exposed to one side light, the highest light 
is not upon the contour of the sphere but within the contour, and 
from this glitter or high light there is a gradually increasing tone 
in all directions toward the contour. The strongest shadow on the 
sphere is at the dividing line of light and shade, which generally 
appears an ellipse. The strongest reflected light is between the 
contour and the strongest shadow. 

16. When a cylinder is exposed to one side light, the highest 
light is not upon the contour, but upon an element within the contour. 
From this element there is a gradually increasing tone in both direc- 
tions toward the contour elements. The strongest shadow is upon 
the element which separates light from shadow, and the strongest 
reflected light between this element and the contour element. 

17. When a cone is exposed to one side light, the highest light is 
upon an element which is within the contour. From this element 


there is a gradually increasing tone in both directions toward the 
contour elements. The strongest shadow is upon the element 
separating light from shadow, and the strongest reflected light is 
between this shadow element and the contour element. 

18. Objects are either in whole or in part lighter or darker than 
the parts against which they are seen, and therefore the true values 
and effect of any object cannot be represented without representing 
the values of the parts surrounding it. 

19. Any object may present an infinite number of different 



Definition. — Value means the relations of tones to each other, 
and concerns the quantity of light or dark they reflect without regard 
to color, so there may be many different colors of the same value. 
With different colors there is usually a difference in value, so that a 
light and shade drawing may generally be true to nature in values 
and yet suggest the different colors throughout the subject. 

Value has to take into account not only different colors but dif- 
ferent tones of the same color, and also variations in the effect of 
one tone or color which are produced by distance or by light and 
shade, and value is generally understood by artists to mean varia- 
tions of light and dark produced by any cause whatever. All the 
variations of effect explained in Chap. I are differences in value, 
and the student will at once see that upon the values depends most 
of the merit of any black and white study. 

Unit of value. — In a light and shade drawing black is usually 
taken as the unit for comparison, the strongest values being those 
which are nearest black, the lowest (lightest) values those which 
are farthest from black. In color work the unit for comparison is 
white, the strongest values are those which reflect the most light to 
the eye, and the lowest (darkest) values those which send the least 
light to the eye. 

Truth of value. — The art student should be continually asking 
himself if his drawing is like nature, and his first problems should 
deal principally with comparisons of his work with nature, which he 
will generally be able to make, so as to discover any important dif- 
ferences. Here the question arises, " How far is it possible to imitate 
nature ? " The strongest light of the artist is given by white paint ; 
even the effect of sunlight upon pure white must be represented by 
means of white paint. Hence the bright lights of nature are often 


much brighter than those of a painting seen in the light of any 
common gallery or room. It is natural, then, to ask if it is possible 
in every case to produce a picture which is like nature. It is well 
to consider this point, although this question is more important to 
the artist than to the elementary student who works in a studio and 
does not have sunlight effects to represent. 

The strongest lights of a landscape, whether in sunlight or in 
moonlight, are represented by the same white paint, with perhaps 
faint tints of warm and cool colors respectively added. Sunlight 
is many times brighter than moonlight ; and yet one picture suggests 
sunlight satisfactorily, and the other, moonlight. Neither picture 
represents nature, but simply suggests one of her effects. In each 
picture the artist's problem is very different from that of the student, 
who works indoors and can place his drawing beside the subject 
and study both at an equal distance and in the same light. In such 
a case, though the glitter lights of the subject may be lighter than 
those of the drawing, there is not the great difference that exists 
between the high lights out of doors and the effect of white paint in 
a studio ; hence the art student is often able to make a drawing 
whose contrasts are as great as those of the subject in a studio. 
With color he can do this more frequently than with black and 
white. But when he attempts sunlight effects, it is impossible to 
obtain in any drawing lights equal in intensity to those of nature. 
With the same contrasts of black and white and color he is obliged 
to give the effect of moonlight and of light many times stronger. 

Not reproduced, but suggested. — The artist is able to represent 
with the same pigments such very different effects, because he is 
not obliged to reproduce the actual colors or contrasts, but simply to 
suggest them. As shown in Chap. I, nature's effects are due to 
contrasts of masses of light and dark and color, and whenever 
these contrasts are suggested, the effect of the subject will be cre- 
ated. The masses are much more simple by moonlight than by sun- 
light, but either effect will be expressed by representing correctly 
the relations of the various masses of light and dark ; in other 
words, the problem is simply that of values. If the relation of any 
light or dark to every other in the moonlight subject is correctly 
given, the picture will create a satisfactory impression of moonlight. 


and in the same way the effect of sunlight will be given by a picture 
which gives the relations between the different masses of the sunlit 

High or low. — In the case of moonlight or that of sunlight, the 
picture may be in a high key or in a low key and still produce 
a satisfactory impression of the subject. Thus the same sunlight 
effect may be represented by two pictures, one very much darker 
throughout than the other ; or the same moonlight effect, by two 
pictures of which one throughout is very much lighter than the 
other. The relations of light to dark in each pair are, however, the 
same, and so they give the effect of sunlight or of moonlight, while 
their general effect is very different. It is in fact possible for a 
satisfactory impression of moonlight upon any subject to be given 
by a picture whose general effect is little, if any, darker than that of 
another canvas which gives a satisfactory impression of sunlight 
upon the same subject. 

Whether the light upon any subject be strong or weak, it will pro- 
duce masses of light and dark and gradations of tone ; and if the 
relations of these masses and tones are correctly represented, the 
effect of the subject will be expressed, whether the contrast between 
the different values is very strong or not. There are no more lights 
or no more shadows with a strong light than with a weak one, and 
there are as many gradations of light and shade with the former as 
with the latter; in fact, there is often less gradation with the strong 
light than with the weak. So it is simply a question of values, and 
the weakness of pigments in contrast with nature is a difficulty 
which has been greatly magnified. To produce a strong picture it is 
not necessary that there should be violent contrasts of light and dark, 
but simply that the relations of the principal masses be truly given ; 
and the student should apply himself to the study of values until 
able to see quickly and render truly the relations between all parts 
of a subject ; for until he can do this he cannot produce a picture 
which will give the effect of nature. He may make the most perfect 
studies of form, but if without values, they will be unatmospheric, 
unnatural, and unsatisfactory. 

Must be studied. — The fallacy of the belief that all that a student 
has to do is to learn to draw, and that values will come then as a 


matter of course, is proven by the work of many who are splendid 
draughtsmen, but who, not having studied values, never succeed in 
making drawings that are not almost without atmosphere and the 
sense of color. 

No black in nature. — It is important that the student should 
understand that in nature he sees no pure black. Black is the 
absence of all light, and light is color. In a perfectly dark room 
not even the whitest non-luminous object can be seen. If a little 
light is allowed to enter the room, the lightest objects will be dimly 
seen, but they must appear of some color; and the darkest objects 
visible will not appear pure black, because they must send some 
light to the eye, and light is color. When there is very little light, 
however, there is so little color that it is often difficult to realize that 
we do not see black. The student will be assisted to realize how 
much light and color there is in nature if he looks outdoors from a 
room which receives light from one or two windows in one side of 
the room. If he stands at the opposite side and, blurring his vision, 
looks through a window (which thus serves as a frame for the land- 
scape seen through it), he will be surprised to find that the light- 
colored window frame seems darker than the dark objects outdoors; 
and even if white, the frame in shadow will generally appear darker 
than the darkest objects outdoors, unless they are quite near the 

If a piece of black velvet is held near the eye and wholly in the 
shadow of the hand, it will appear practically black, for it is so near 
the eye that the atmosphere does not change its color ; it receives 
no direct light, and reflects very little of the reflected light which 
strikes it. If the student will now compare the darks of the room 
with the black thus held in the hand, they will be found to be quite 
gray and luminous in contrast with the black. This is true of the 
strongest darks of groups, such as those of Figs. 14, 15, and 16; and 
even black objects or draperies in the room will seem much lighter 
than the black in the hand. This is in accordance with the law of 
aerial perspective, which causes the nearer, of any two objects 
equally dark to appear the darker. 

Little black in any drawing. — The student who works in color 
will do well to make the absence of black in nature the basis for a 



rule which forbids the use of pure black in any color study. But the 
student of light and shade works with mediums far less powerful than 
color, and it is often necessary or desirable for him to represent the 
strongest dark in his subject by the strongest dark to be obtained with 
the medium employed; for by so doing he is able to give more of the 
gradations in the mass of the light than can be given if the strongest 
dark of the group is represented by gray. And whenever the strongest 
dark of any subject seems very dark in contrast with the light, and 
no detail is seen in it, the student should generally represent this dark 
by the strongest dark to be obtained with the medium used. But 
this accent or spot of black must be very small; for if any large part 
of the drawing is without the gradation seen in all parts of the subject, 
it will not be atmospheric, and therefore not natural. The student 
must have in any drawing one high light, that is, one light which is 
brighter than all others, and one dark which is darker than all other 
darks, but he must be particularly careful not to use pure black freely. 

As already shown, a drawing may be upon a light key or upon a 
dark one. But the most truthful representation of the appearances 
due to daylight, either indoors or outdoors, will be given by one 
which at first glance gives the impression of light and color. Gen- 
erally the student will find the lightest drawing which can be made 
to suggest the masses of light and dark, and the principal gradations 
in the mass of light will be most true to nature; for when it is seen 
from a short distance the detail is seen, and when seen from a long 
distance it gives the effect of light and nature, which cannot be pro- 
duced by a drawing whose lights are so dark that at a distance the 
drawing seems largely or wholly dark. 

Values may be changed. — The value by which any part of any 
subject shall be represented depends somewhat upon the extent and 
nature of the subject. Thus, suppose a group similar to that of 
Fig. 1 8 placed upon a table covered with black drapery, which hangs 
in folds to the floor, the group being lighted by a feeble light from 
behind or at the left of the spectator, and a window being situated 
some distance to the left of the group, through which a sunlit land- 
scape is seen. If the room with its contents is to be represented, 
the mass of light will be the window. The group will seem com- 
posed of gray colors, and the strongest darks will be upon the black 


drapery. If simply the group is to be represented, the most truthful 
drawing will be that which gives the values seen when the group is 
compared with its surroundings. The most truthful representation 
of the landscape alone will be that which gives the impression of the 
brilliancy of light and color seen through the window. The student 
should aim to represent truly not only the relative values, but as far 
as possible the actual values seen in any subject, and in order to do 
this he should compare the values with pure black material which is 
held in the hand and shaded so as to appear black. 

When the student can represent truly the actual values in any sub- 
ject as far as this is possible, the values may be changed, just as the 
form and color may be changed, to more perfectly express the artist's 
sentiments. Thus the values of any subject such as the group alone 
may be changed so that the lights of the group are lighter than they 
seem when compared with the high lights seen through the window, 
and so that the darks are somewhat darker than the darks of the 
group appear when they are compared with the strongest darks of the 
room. And in representing the landscape alone its darks may be 
made darker than they seem when they are compared with those of 
the room. But in all work in which it is desired to give the effect of 
the light and color seen in nature, it will be well to keep the drawing 
as luminous as possible, and to have the strongest darks in it simply 
the accents or small bits of dark, which may be pure black or not, 
according to the nature of the subject and the medium used. 

Fixing a charcoal drawing darkens it, especially in the lighter 
tones. This is another reason why such drawings should be very 

Necessary in all work. — Students often wish to learn to illus- 
trate ; that is, to take lessons that will enable them to make draw- 
ings to be reproduced by some of the special processes. They 
often think that they can do this without going through the severe 
training needed by the art student. But it is a mistake for any one 
to study processes unttl he can draw, and the student who wishes 
to illustrate should study art in the same way and just as long as the 
artist studies. When one knows how to draw, the skill required for 
making drawings to be specially reproduced will be gained in a very 
short time. 


Tests for Values. 

Perfect sight not common. — The first and most difficult prob- 
lem for the art student is to learn to see, for only a few ever learn 
to see perfectly; and those not giving the matter special attention 
seldom see the actual appearance of either form, light and shade or 

To realize perfectly what the eye pictures for the mind to read 
concerning simply the apparent forms of objects requires many 
years of serious study, and is so difficult that even after this study 
the artist of reputation is very apt to be deceived and draw what is 
very different from the image of the eye. In " Free- Hand Drawing " 
it was shown that a course in free-hand perspective assists the 
student to avoid faulty representations of the geometric forms, 
which are most likely to deceive even the practiced eye of the artist. 
Any student who draws the geometric forms, and tests them as 
explained in "Free-Hand Drawing," will soon realize that it is difficult 
to see correctly; for he finds what he thinks he sees to be very differ- 
ent from what the tests prove that he does see, and it is easy for him 
to convince himself that he cannot see correctly. 

Values more difficult than drawing. — To convince an art stu- 
dent that he cannot see light and shade or color correctly is far 
more difficult than to prove that he cannot see form correctly. To 
draw correctly requires, first, an eye naturally true, and, second, a 
serious and extended course of study; but almost every serious 
student can in time teach himself to represent form correctly. The 
same student may work many months, even with the assistance of a 
teacher, and fail to see values or color correctly. 

To give the actual facts pictured in the eye concerning light, dark, 
and color is so difficult that few succeed; and even after years of 
study many see in nature only the actual facts known, or what they 
have become accustomed to think they see concerning the local 
colors of objects. 

Values not taught. — If artists and teachers generally made the 
study of values as important as that of form, doubtless many students 
who do not understand what value means would become able to see 
values correctly; but the number would be small compared with that 



of those who are able to draw correctly, for serious students of the 
best teachers often work for many months before they realize how 
incorrectly they see values. 

The teacher who insists upon correct values requires much 
patience and ingenuity, for his pupils cannot readily help them- 
selves, nor can they believe the teacher who tells them, for instance, 
that they ought to see, in some special group, dark blue lighter than 
yellow, when they know that they see it as they think it ought to appear, 
— darker than the yellow. In such cases the teacher must either be 
content to say : " If you cannot see it, you must draw it as I say, and 
in time you will see it as I do," or he must prove to them that at first 
their eyes tell them nothing but the most glaring falsehoods about all 
that they see. When pupils realize this fact, and have once received 
a genuine sight impression concerning values, they will ever after- 
ward see things in a new way, and their improvement will be rapid. 

Eye sees details instead of values. — To see values and realize 
the effect of the masses, the eye must be used for this purpose 
only. This is a difficult problem for the student, for naturally the 
eye is focused upon a single detail, which is clearly seen. The 
vision passes rapidly over the whole of the group, taking in all its 
details by means of this careful study, which is of just the same 
nature as that which the scientist bestows through his microscope 
upon the specimens he studies. The only difference in their methods 
is that the motion of the eye of the art student is very rapid, and 
that the lens of the eye takes the place of the microscope. The 
scientist sees details, and very properly, since these are what he is to 
describe. The art student also sees details, and too often his work 
indicates that he must have examined each little bit as if through a 
microscope. In his first drawings he usually so magnifies the import- 
ance of every detail that his drawing is unintelligible, and gives, not 
the faintest suggestion of the impression produced upon the eye 
which sees the effects of light, dark, and color in their true relations. 

The art student must learn that the artist and scientist work for 
entirely different ends, — that the aim of the artist is not detail, but 
the spirit and character of the whole, and that this cannot be obtained 
without making it of first importance and thinking first of the long 
lines, the large masses, and the effect of the whole subject. 


Blurred vision necessary. — The eflEect of any subject is never 
realized when the student looks at any one part ; he must look at the 
group all at once. The whole of any subject can be seen at once 
only by seeing all its parts equally and thus indistinctly. That is, 
the eye must focus on no one part, but be in focus for an object in 
front of or behind the group ; then all its parts may be seen indistinctly 
at one time. The student will realize what is meant by blurred vision 
by closing the eyes gradually until the group can barely be seen be- 
tween the lids and the lashes; this cuts off most of the light and 
obstructs the sight so that the objects are blurred. Blurred vision 
may also be obtained by holding a pencil in the hand and in front of 
the group and looking at the pencil, which will be seen sharply, while 
the group will be seen very indistinctly. To see the whole at once 
is difRcult for the art student, but the artist finds it easier than the 
searching gaze which the art student employs, because the artist sees 
effects unconsciously with blurred vision, which does not tire the eyes. 

Many aids to the correct seeing of values have been used ; among 
them the following are those of most assistance to the student. 

Claude Lorrain mirror. — This is a mirror which gives a reduced 
image of the object, and has a black reflecting surface which dimin- 
ishes the light so that the relative values may be studied more readily 
than in the group. A substitute may be made by painting one side 
of an ordinary piece of plate glass with ivory black. 

Common mirror. — This is often used by artists and is a valuable 
aid, as its image reverses the lines of the group and the drawing, 
and by showing the parts in new relations makes errors prominent to 
which the eye has become accustomed. When the drawing is placed 
beside the group, and the mirror as far as possible from the group, it 
enables comparisons to be made from a distance twice that which 
could otherwise be obtained. The student will obtain much assist- 
ance from this mirror. 

Diminishing glass. — This is a lens concave on one or both sides, 
which produces a small clear image of the group. The image is so 
small that it may readily be seen at one glance, and thus the values 
of the different parts be more easily seen. But even here the ten- 
dency is for the students to study the details of the image instead of 
its effects, and thus lose the advantage to be derived from the glass. 



Though these aids are very valuable, they often fail to make the 
student see for the first time the fact that a dark color may appear 
lighter than a light color, and the only means on which, according to 
my experience, the beginner can safely depend for corrections of values 
are the blxir glass and the card described on page 57. 

The blur glass. — This is simply an ordinary magnifying glass of 
about 15 inches focus. It should not be less than 12 inches focus or 
more than 16 inches or 18 inches. A rough lens about 2 inches diam- 
eter can be obtained at an optician's for about fifteen cents, and may 
be framed by cutting a circular hole in a piece of cardboard so that 
it will receive the lens, and then cutting smaller holes in two more 
pieces, and gluing one to each side of the first piece. The glass is 
thus protected so that it will not break if dropped, and the cardboard 
is also an improvement because it hides from sight all except the 
parts seen through the glass. If this glass is held so that the group 
may be seen through it, the outlines will be blurred and all detail soft- 
ened. In this way the masses of light and dark are rendered so prom- 
inent that the student sees them as perhaps he never would without 
the glass. 

It is said that the use of such a glass must be injurious, and con- 
sequently pupils should not be allowed to use it. Those who think 
thus do not understand that the glass is to be used not for seeing, 
but to prevent seeing, and should not be used to look through, but 
to look at In other words, the eyes must be focused upon the glass 
held in the hand, and not upon the group behind the glass, for if the 
student looks through the glass at the group, he will strain his eyes 
and be almost as badly off as when without the blur glass, for his eyes 
will adjust to the glass so that he will still see too much detai_. 

To teach the proper use of the glass, secure a sheet of gray paper 
or of cloth of one color upon the wall or any vertical surface so that its 
lower portion may rest upon a horizontal surface. Ask the student 
to make a light and shade drawing representing simply these two 
surfaces. This will cause him to decide as to the difference in value 
between the two. Having made the drawing, ask him to hold the 
blur glass up so as to see through it the vertical surface, and then 
ask him to look not through the glass, but at it, to discover the color 
which it appears. Now ask him to hold the glass so that through it 


the horizontal surface is seen, and then to look as before at the glass 
instead of through it. Having held the glass carefully to see the 
color it appears to be when in front of each of the two surfaces, ask the 
student to move the glass up and down, slowly at first and then as 
rapidly as possible, so that it shall transmit first the color of the ver- 
tical surface and then that of the horizontal. If this motion is con- 
tinued and the student looks at the glass, he will discover that the 
difference in color between the two surfaces is much greater than what 
he thought he saw and what his drawing represents ; and he will at 
the same time have gained a true impression of values and learned 
to use his glass properly. The use of paper or cloth of one color is 
of great assistance in enabling the pupil to look at the glass instead 
of through it, and this experiment should be the first lesson of pupils 
old enough to apply it, and should be repeated as often as is neces- 
sary to enable all the students to use the glass properly ; for if they 
do not use it properly they injure their eyes and destroy their best 
chance of becoming independent and able to correct their own light 
and shade studies. When large masses are compared, the blur glass 
should always be held as far as possible from the eye ; and when any 
part is studied it should be held, if possible, far enough from the eye 
to cause the part to blur into a formless mass of color which fills the 
entire glass, and which is to be looked at as if upon the glass. 

Instead of moving one blur glass to cover the parts to be com- 
pared, two blur glasses may be used ; they should be held the same 
distance from the eye and so that the two parts to be compared may 
be seen at the same time. 

One of the strongest influences causing false ideas of value is the 
contrast of light and dark in juxtaposition, and the tendency of the 
student to compare only parts which are near each other. If he would 
compare parts with others farther away and with the masses, he would 
see how contrast effects deceive the eye. When the blur glass is 
properly used, it will show the relations of parts to each other and to 
the masses, but some students will require more assistance than the 
use of the blur glass. 

Black paper. — Pupils who cannot see values by the use of the 
glass so as to discover, for instance, that the shadow surface of the 
plinth (Fig. 14) appears darker than the foreground, will be assisted 



if the teacher holds in front of the group a sheet of black paper in 
which holes are cut so that through one the student sees simply a 
part of the shadow, while through the other he sees simply part of 
the foreground. When the two parts to be compared are seen with- 
out the influence of the surrounding parts, there are few students 
who will not see the values truly. The paper should be held near 
the group, and both sides should be a dead black in order that the 
back surface of the paper may not reflect light enough to the group 
to change its values. 

The difficulty is to enable the student to realize for the first time 
that the light object often appears darker than the dark object. A 
mug of a light yellow color and having a pewter cover is an excel- 
lent object to use to show this fact. If it is placed on its side so that 
the cover is toward the light, the cover will appear lighter than the 
shadow surface of the mug. Few young pupils will realize this fact, 
and those who do realize it will be astonished to see the great differ- 
ence in value which is shown when the two parts are compared by the 
use of the black paper which the teacher holds near the mug. Pupils 
who fail to see the values by use of the blur glass will almost always 
see them when they see in this way simply isolated spots of each 
color, and teachers should use this test when students show that 
they do not use the glass properly. 

Black card. — The pupils may apply this principle by using a 
piece of black cardboard through which small holes have been made 
at varying intervals. The card may be of any smooth piece of card- 
board. The holes should be clean, round, and of varying sizes, and 
they should not press out the surface of the card ; if this happens, 
it should be pressed back or trimmed with a sharp knife until both 
sides are smooth and flat. Both surfaces should then be colored 
with india ink or any dead black color; and also the edges of the 
holes. If this card is held in front of the group, it will hide from 
the eye all except the small parts which may be seen through the 
pin holes, and the card may be held so that any two parts whose 
values are to be decided may be seen through different holes. This 
card is of great assistance to elementary pupils, and it should be 
used occasionally to verify their work. The size of the holes depends 
upon the distance of the group and the distance at which the card is 


held from the eye, and may vary from a pin hole to one )^ or ^ of 
an inch in diameter. 

This card will assist the student to obtain true values and also to 
obtain what is essential and difficult to secure, — a gray and lumi- 
nous drawing. The tendency of the pupil is to pile on the charcoal 
and make a black, heavy drawing, and it is difficult for pupils to 
realize that effect and solidity are not due to black, but to contrasts 
of masses of grays ; when the student looks through the card which 
is shaded by the hand, he realizes that there are no blacks in his 

The chief value of the black card lies in the fact that it enables 
each pupil to remove at will the deceptive effects due to the con- 
trasts of different values. If he could or would use the blur glass 
properly, the card would not be necessary ; but it is so difficult for 
some to look at the glass instead of through it that the card is very 

Black frame. — A piece of black leather or cardboard in which 
a rectangular opening is cut will help to impress this fact of the 
luminosity of nature's effects upon the student, and to make him 
realize that a true drawing cannot be one which is black or heavy. 

Light into shadow The student will often be assisted to see 

the values of two parts, as, for instance, the cast shadow upon the 
white cast (Fig. 15), and that of the cast upon the panelling, if the 
teacher holds or places an object so that it shall throw the whole of 
the cast into shadow. The pupil will often make the cast shadow on 
the cast as dark as that on the wall, for the contrast of the shadow 
and light upon the cast makes the shadow appear much darker than 
it really is. If the light parts of the cast are thrown into shadow, the 
part originally shadow changes but little in value, for it receives no 
more, and generally but little less, light than at first ; and when the 
effect of contrast is removed, the student will see that the cast 
shadow on the cast is much lighter than that on the background. 

Study at a distance. — The least mechanical and most satisfac- 
tory test, and the one which should be applied most frequently, is 
simply placing the drawing beside the group and comparing it with 
the group when the student is as far as possible from the group. 
When comparing them, the eyes should be out of focus, so that the 


drawing and the group may be seen equally at the same time, and 
the student should ask if the drawing gives the impression of the 
group and of nature, or if it gives the effect of a sheet of paper 
slightly tinted. Does it present the same masses of light and dark 
that the group does, and are the contrasts of these masses as strong 
as those of the group? Are the darks of the drawing as simple and 
dark as those of the group, or are they cut up by exaggerated reflected 
lights ? Are the lights of the drawing as broad and as light as those 
of the group, or are they cut up by exaggerated grays ? The student 
who will ask these questions when he sees both drawing and group 
equally, and of course indistinctly, can hardly fail to discover the most 
important errors of the drawing. 

It is very important that the drawing be thus seen from a distance 
repeatedly from its early stages, until its effect agrees with that of 
the group ; when this hz^ppens the student must complete the draw- 
ing by giving the essential detail. While drawing this he must be 
careful not to change the masses, and until the drawing is completed 
it must be viewed from a distance occasionally in order to make sure 
that the detail is not too prominent. 

Use of the hand. — A convenient and simple way of obtaining the 
results given by the use of the black card is afforded by looking through 
a small opening which may be formed by compressing and bending 
the first finger upon the thumb. The hand may be moved so that 
one after another the parts to be compared may be seen through the 
finger, or both hands may be used and two parts compared at once 
by viewing one through one hand and the other through the other. 

Tipping the head. — Another test, which is simple and very valu- 
able, is that of tipping the head until the eyes are in a vertical line 
instead of in a horizontal one. Any one who will view the simplest 
landscape in this way will be surprised to see how much more color 
it seems to have than when seen naturally. The principal reason 
for this is that when the head is tipped the objects are seen in such 
unusual relations that their forms are not thought of, and all the at- 
tention is attracted to contrasts of light, shade, and color. The student 
of color will find that this test accomplishes the same result as the use 
of the blur glass, and it will be equally valuable in the study of light 
and shade. 


Tests inferior to feeling. — At first every student will require 
some mechanical test or aid to enable him to see values correctly, 
but he must not depend upon these tests any more than in determin- 
ing contours upon measurements of proportions ; for tests are of no 
more assistance in producing a work of art whose values are true 
than measurements are in producing correct drawing. Good art can 
never be produced mechanically, and the artist must depend upon 
his eyes and his feeling for both good drawing and good values. 
But the student will obtain his education in the direction of values 
just as he will in that of form, and if he does not adopt some means 
of discovering the errors of his first studies, he will repeat them and 
possibly never discover them. 

Tests lead to feeling. — The student is advised to apply all tests 
with great patience in his first work. He should be satisfied to 
prove his work as carefully as possible until he knows that his eyes 
are to be depended upon for results which will harmonize with those 
given by the application of the tests. After this he must depend 
upon his eyes and his feeling for the fine results which distinguish 
art from industry. The student who does not use the tests until he 
has proven his ability to see correctly without them, or at least to 
obtain by sight results equal to those given by the application of the 
tests, acts very unwisely and will be compelled to spend much more 
time in acquiring his elementary training than he would if he chose 
to profit by the tests. My experience has shown that students who 
think it unnecessary to apply tests generally make a series of drawings 
of which the last is no better than the first, until they finally discover 
that the rest of the class have completed work which they are as 
far from doing as they were at the first of the year. At this time 
they generally decide to try the tests, and the result of such decision 
is often as surprising to the student as to the teacher ; for frequently 
I have known such students to make a drawing as false as possible, 
and the next day, after having seriously tried to follow directions 
and apply tests, to make a drawing which was quite true and satis- 

The student must use tests in his first work, for in no other way can 
he learn how different appearances are from the facts, but he must aim 
to dispense with the blur glass and other mechanical means as soon 


as possible. In order to do this he should begin by working by sight 
without the aid of any tests, and should continue in this way until 
he thinks his drawing is correct, when he should apply the tests. 
When he has worked long enough to obtain by eye alone results 
which the tests do not change, he may continue his work without the 
aid of mechanical tests, depending partly upon comparisons at a dis- 
tance, blurring the eyes, and tipping the head, but principally upon 
his own feeling and cultivated perceptions. 


The Student's Aim. 

Truth the first essential. — The first aim of the art student should 
be to learn to see and represent truly nature's effects, for if he canr 
not represent truly the form, light and shade, and color effects of 
natural objects before him, he cannot expect to represent the con- 
ceptions of his mind. Ideas of all forms, animate and inanimate, 
must be based upon the objects and life found in nature. A famous 
painter has said that it takes a master to represent nature truly, and 
certainly this is a point beyond which few can expect to go, for the 
poetic temperament necessary to ideal work is very rare, and the 
art student should be satisfied to study seriously until he is able to 
represent nature truly and readily. Many students are deceived and 
led to work for false standards by the oft-repeated statement that the 
aim of art should not be truth, but idealization ; but it cannot be 
shown that the highest art is possible when one is not master of the 
simple art of truthful representation of natural objects. 

Drawing must be natural. — To produce a great work of art, the 
mind must be perfectly free to express itself without thought of the 
materials or methods employed. The painter cannot do this if his 
attention is frequently diverted to the drawing, light and shade, or 
color involved, or to the manipulation of his materials. To work 
freely he must give 'the drawing, light and shade, and color readily, 
and be as little conscious of the handling of the mediums used as is 
the orator of the separate words by which he expresses the emotions 
of his mind. 

Art simplifies nature. — Some of nature's effects are beyond the 
power of paint or other mediums, and in order to convey a sugges- 
tion of them it will be necessary to simplify the subject and to omit 
detail seen in both the strong light and the deep shadow. This 


simplifying is often advisable when not necessary, as the aim of the 
artist should be to represent only what will best express and is essen- 
tial to the sentiment of the subject. 

Simplifying the most difficult art. — Art students have the idea 
that omission of detail is essential to the best work, and so think 
that good work will result simply from the omission of detail. They 
do not understand that the artist always has the sentiment which he 
desires to express in his mind, influencing every stroke that he makes, 
and that it is this effort to secure the ideal whole which eliminates 
all not essential to it. The art student does not understand that he 
cannot work as the artist does until after studying as long as the 
artist has studied to obtain the power to see, to think, and to work 
artistically ; that is, to see the beauty and the poetry in nature and 
to overlook blemishes or details not essential to the sentiment of the 
subject. This being the case, the beginner who thinks to improve 
his work by omitting detail has no guide and no end to accomplish, 
and his drawings are consequently without merit. 

Simplifying follows exact drawing. — The student asks how 
much detail he shall represent, and often is inclined to feel that he is 
imposed upon if requested to represent all or nearly all that he sees. 
But he ought not to feel satisfied until he can represent truly and 
readily all that he sees. To do this requires, in the first place, the 
capacity for seeing form and values truly, and, secondly, the power 
to draw. If the student can see and draw, it is simply a question of 
patient work to finish the drawing. If he cannot see or draw truly, 
he certainly needs the study which will enable him to do this, and 
which is to be obtained only by studying detail until it can be cor- 
rectly represented. When the student is able to draw correctly and 
readily, then and then only will he be able to express artistically 
whatever he may feel. 

Fine perceptions due to long study. — The power to feel and to 
see the finer effects of form and color can be acquired only by long- 
continued hard work and study ; it cannot be imparted by one who 
possesses it to one who does not possess it. Consequently there is 
no easy road for the student who would become an artist. All must 
win whatever success they attain at the cost of repeated failures and 
much hard work. 


Students are too apt to think that fame is due to genius which is 
the birthright of nature's favorites. Genius has been defined as the 
capacity for hard work, and the art student will do well to accept 
this definition ; for though we must admit that all are born with dif- 
ferent powers, we must also acknowledge that those whose fame in art 
is greatest began to work while young, and kept on drawing and paint- 
ing till they were in the prime of life before they produced their best 
work. The art student who hopes to achieve success without work 
expects to do what the most highly gifted and most famous artists 
have not been able to accomplish. 

Detail subordinate to mass. — The student who is told to repre- 
sent detail must remember that no part should be exaggerated so as 
to interfere with the effect of the masses of light and dark. These 
masses must be represented in their proper relations even if, in order 
to do this, some of the finer gradations are not given or are given 
less strongly than they are seen. For instance, in representing a 
white polished sphere, the contrast between the glitter point and the 
parts near it is quite marked ; and if the sphere is in a group in 
which there is a very dark object, it may not be possible to represent 
the glitter point as strongly as it appears without getting the mass of 
the light of the sphere so dark that the dark object cannot be repre- 
sented in its actual relations to the white sphere. In this case it is 
much better to express the relations between the masses of light and 
dark truly and merely suggest the glitter point on the sphere ; indeed 
this must be done if the mass of the light of the sphere is to be light 
enough to express the effect of the sphere in contrast with the dark 

The Artist's Aims. 

The artist an impressionist. — By means of paint, crayon, or any 
other medium we cannot reproduce any object, but can only produce 
what may create a more or less satisfactory impression of it. The 
artist should always aim to produce the strongest effect of his sub- 
ject that can be produced by the medium chosen ; he must be called 
an impressionist^ whatever his style of painting or. methods of work. 
As such he may seek to convey ideas of beauty of form or of color, 
but his first aim must be to produce the strongest impression of the 


spirit of the subject, that is, of the impression it creates upon himself. 
It is not his aim to represent it as any other person may see it, or as 
the camera would reproduce it with all its unimportant details. 

Sentiment more important than truth. — Art does not require 
exactness of representation, but rather the embodiment of the senti- 
ment of the subject ; this being so, we can understand why the artist 
disregards exact appearances, and that the best impression of the 
form of any object is often given by a drawing which is not like the 
image created by the object in the eye. We can also understand 
why the artist who works in light and shade may not give exactly 
the values he sees ; and why in color work his aim is often not so 
much to give just the colors he sees as colors which may create in 
the eyes of those who observe the picture the same sentiments con- 
cerning the color effect of the subject as the artist felt when he was 
before it. To awaken these ideas, he often does not paint what he sees, 
because a much stronger impression of the color effect is produced 
by the contrast of colors which are different from those he sees. 
The artist is justified in departing from nature as regards either form, 
values, or color, when by so doing the result more truly gives the sen- 
timent of the subject. 

That a drawing is often improved by making the spirit of the sub- 
ject more important than exact representation of details is shown by 
the drawings on page 7 1 of " Free- Hand Drawing," where Figs. 24 and 
26 represent the actual appearance of the side boxes and Fig. 27 
shows that when these boxes are to be shown by one drawing, it is 
better not to give the actual appearance of the side boxes, but to 
show instead the fact that the boxes are arranged in a straight line. 

The difference between absolute truth of detail and the artist's 
drawing is shown by Figs. 22, 23, 24, and 25. The photograph gives 
the actual facts, and the three drawings give the facts most important 
to suggest the spirit of the subject. These drawings are not like the 
photograph as regards either the principal lines or the detail. Thus 
the long lines of the bank are more curved than in nature and the 
details much simplified, being suggested instead of represented. The 
artist always works in this way whatever his subject, for he feels its 
spirit, its long lines and principal masses, and so represents them 
as to produce the effect of beauty which he feels. His work is not care- 

Fig. 22. From a Photograph. 

Fig. 23. From a Water Color Sepia Sketch. 

Fig. 24. From a Pencil Drawing. 

Fig. 25. From a Pen and Ink Drawing. 



less or inaccurate drawing, but the best drawing of all the essentials. 
It differs from truth in order to produce the most truthful representa- 
tion of the beauty the artist sees with his discriminating eyes, which 
do not dwell upon the ugly or commonplace features. 

A true drawing of a near object unsatisfactory. — The student 
may be assisted to understand that the best drawing is due to feeling, 
and not to a literal representation of what the eye sees by studying 
photographs of figures in which he will often find unpleasant effects^ 
due to the perspective of a hand or foot which is too near the camera 
to seem in harmony with the other parts of the figure. As illustrated 
in Chap. VII of " Free-Hand Drawing," the photograph is liable to 
distortions due to the camera not being pointed directly at the ob- 
ject. But the unpleasant photograph may be taken with the camera 
pointed directly at the figure and thus be nearly like the image of 
the eye; in this case its distortion is due principally to the nearness 
of the camera to the figure. 

Artist draws by feeling. — If an artist draws just what he sees 

when very near a figure, the drawing 
resulting will be as unpleasant as the 
distorted photograph of a horse, for 
it disregards the fact that the artist 
should not be nearer the figure he 
draws than two or three times its 
height. If the artist is obliged to 
draw a figure when so near to it that 
representing the nearer parts of their 
actual visual proportions would make 
these parts seem too large for the 
farther parts, he changes the propor- 
tions until they represent those he 
feels concerning the figure and not 
the apparent visual proportions. 
When drawing out of doors he rep- 
resents the proportions he feels and not those of the photograph, 
which often reduces and changes important lines very much. 

The perspective of an object very near the eye is so large that 
when the eye is not at the station-point all the more distant objects 

Fig. 25a. From Photograph. 


seem very small. The most distorted photograph will give a perfect 
impression of nature if it is seen from the proper station-point. Fold 
a card two inches from one edge, so that a right angle is formed. 
Then place the card above Fig. 25^, so that one part is parallel to 
the page and two inches from it ; and twist a sharp lead pencil into 
the card to produce a hole about ^ of an inch in diameter, and oppo- 
site the center of the figure. When the picture is seen with the eye 
stationed at this hole, 2 inches from the page, it will not appear 
distorted. It is not wise to represent a figure or other object which 
is quite near the eye when other figures are far from it, for the 
correct visual proportions will produce a drawing which makes the 
distant figures appear as if dwarfs. Often a fence retreats into the 
picture from a point near the artist, and if its nearer parts are rep- 
resented by their visual proportions, they will dwarf all other parts of 
the subject. In such cases the artist should change the proportions 
of the nearer parts so that Xhtyfeel right. 

Values are often changed. — In the matter of values the artist 
changes more frequently than in the form. Thus in a portrait it is 
important that the head be the principal feature, and to make it such 
the light upon other parts, the hand, for instance, is often represented 
very greatly subdued in tone so that it does not attract the eye ; and 
always in all work the artist omits or subordinates features which 
are unpleasant or not essential to the sentiment which the subject 

The student cannot imitate the artist. — The art student cannot 
imitate the artist in work which is the result of feeling only to be 
obtained after years of study, and these explanations have been 
made in order that the student may be content to study until he can 
give truly just the form, values, and color seen before he attempts 
the most difficult problem in art. 



Depends on individuality. — Little would be said upon this sub- 
ject here if it were not for the fact that so much attention is often 
given to it that it is necessary to show that matters of technique are 
not of first importance. Technique or handling means the way in 
which any medium is used to produce an effect, and to the artist 
it is of great interest and importance, for upon the way in which the 
medium is handled depends the effect of the sketch and the time 
required to produce it. Handling is the result of temperament and 
education, and is very different with different people. The same 
subject may be represented by half a dozen different artists, and the 
handling of no two sketches be alike. The time spent upon them 
may range from a few hours to many days, and to the public the 
results may not be very different in effect, or, on the other hand, they 
may be so different that they would hardly be accepted as painted 
from the same subject. 

Depends on education. — The average person rarely changes the 
habits and ideas which are his by birth and education. Almost 
every one has perfect faith in the theories which he holds, and often 
will not admit that the theories of others are worth consideration. 
On the contrary, he tries to convert those who differ from him, and 
sometimes he refuses to consider an opinion for which no authority 
is found in the school to which he belongs. If his mind questions 
the correctness of any point decided by his authorities, he is often too 
timid to let his doubt be known, and he thus sees and thinks through 

We often recognize in the work of an artist the technique of the 
teacher with whom he has studied, and, if we know him, find that he 
sees no merit outside the work of his own school. The ability to be 
independent is possessed by the few who lead. Naturally the major- 


ity seek some one to follow, or, rather, follow instinctively the leaders 
with whose temperaments they are in harmony. In art this causes the 
different schools, and gives rise to the conflicting ideas concerning 
art education. 

Art judged by unimportant details. — The public generally is 
pleased by detail, the more detail the better, and it compares all work 
with that of a Meissonier or with a photograph. Some who have 
studied have passed beyond the stage of search for detail, but even 
to many of them art often consists principally of the technique of the 
picture, which is good if similar to that of the artists whose work 
they have chosen as ideals. 

Art instruction influenced by fads. — The instruction in schools, 
both elementary and advanced, is too largely influenced by the latest 
technical fad, which is the technique of those who influence art matters 
at any particular time. So method supersedes method — there is no 
accepted standard, and art instruction often deals with matters relat- 
ing to a medium and its handling, while the foundation of drawing 
and values receives far too little attention. 

This is especially true of the work in the public schools, where it 
has often been necessary to have instruction in drawing given by 
teachers who have had little opportunity to study drawing. Conse- 
quently students have sometimes been told that all methods except 
one are out of date and harmful, and that drawings made in other 
ways are bad. For instance, it has been claimed that a charcoal 
or other light and shade drawing must be made wholly with the 
point of the charcoal or other pencil and consist of separate lines, 
and that a drawing in which the lines are at all blended to form 
a tint is not good. The results of such teaching are generally most 
mechanical drawings, although they are often better than some of the 
copies provided to show public school pupils how to make light and 
shade drawings. 

Less important than truth. — Technique bears the same relation 
to drawing that style does to the study of the elements of language. 
Therefore the teacher of elementary work should not allow his pupils 
to consider technique at all. The pupil should think simply of the 
truth of the drawing, and the teacher of the way in which the pupil 
may obtain the truth most quickly and easily. The teacher should 


remember that every medium may be used in mWny different ways, 
and should not restrict individuality of expression that produces true 

The aim of a drawing is to create an impression of nature, and any 
drawing must be bad which, instead of doing this, causes one to 
think at once of paper and crayon or whatever other medium may be 
used, or of the way in which it is used. This is a good test for poor 

With any medium certain facts are self-evident, as, for instance, 
that the surface of the paper must not be destroyed by erasing ; but 
such essential points will be discovered by any one who studies, and 
what is meant is that the spirit of the drawing should always be 
thought of first, and that difficult methods should not be studied be- 
cause they are interesting to some noted person. 

Concerns the advanced student. — The art student must be inter- 
ested in technique, for it involves the mechanical points which, he 
must master thoroughly before he can express himself freely; but 
questions of technique concern principally advanced students. The 
elementary student should be taught that the medium must not force 
itself or its handling upon the eye ; that there must be in any draw- 
ing a harmony of treatment throughout its parts ; that it will not do 
to finish one part perfectly and smoothly and have parts equally im- 
portant imperfectly and roughly finished. 

The ability and training of the student, and his aim in studying, 
must decide whether any medium or particular way of using it should 
be chosen ; but the elementary teacher must consider simply how he 
can most quickly train his pupils to see and draw correctly, and he 
will discard any method which makes the pupil think of the point 
and the kind of line he is drawing instead of tHe form or value that 
should be represented. 

Many ways of using every medium. — The pictures and draw- 
ings of the best artists should be studied, for the student will be 
greatly helped and inspired by them. Great variety of handling will 
be found in them and also in those by any one artist, and study of 
the technique of others will soon convince one that there are many 
ways in which any medium may be used with the best results, if one 
with artistic feeling can draw well. 


Less important than beauty. — The public should be taught that 
the technique of a picture concerns them little, and that if a picture 
is beautiful in form, color, and sentiment, it should be admired for 
these qualities, and not because it is smoothly painted or roughly 
painted, or because it gives evidence of rapid work or of the greatest 
labor; for art does not consist in technique, but in results which come 
from and appeal to the soul, and are embodied in mind and not in 
medium or its handling. If this could be understood and the public 
would look beyond the surface of the canvas, a great advance would 
be made. 


Harmony of methods. — In " Free-Hand Drawing" it is shown that 
the pupil who studies outline drawing should first suggest his impres- 
sion of the mass of the group and of its important lines ; that he should 
begin with its essentials and from the first express character by 
light touches suggesting the most important features ; and that he 
should change these touches without erasing until finally the form is 
correctly represented. 

There should be from first to last a harmony in the methods em- 
ployed by the pupil, whatever the mediums used, and if the above is 
the best method for studying outline drawing, it must be the best for 
the study of light and shade. In practice the student who has thus 
studied outline will continue these methods, and the transition from 
outline to light and shade will naturally follow the making of outline 
drawings, for the touches required to obtain the correct form will 
often blend together and suggest the light and shade effects of the 

Outline study leads to that of values. — To make a shaded draw- 
ing giving simply the relative values of a cast or a figure without the 
use of a background is a natural continuation of the process by which 
the outline should be obtained ; for the trial lines follow the surface 
they represent and give the effect of shade as it is rendered by the 
pencil of the artist. The artist feels the surface he represents and 
expresses its form and gradations of shade by strokes which, following 
the surface, help to give the roundness and character of the part 
whose contour and value they represent. 

Fig. 26. From Pencil Sketch by Raphael. 


When a drawing such as Fig. 26 is to be carefully shaded, the 
masses of shadow should be carefully indicated and defined by light 
touches until all the contours and shadows are seen to be in correct 

Fig. 27. From Pencil Study by Leonardo da Vinci. 

drawing. The shadows may then be strengthened, the accents added, 
and the drawing finished as in Figs. 27 and 59. This natural process 
of making a light and shade drawing has been followed by the most 
famous artists of the past, and is an artistic method of studying form. 
Many of the old masters' drawings illustrate this method and also 


the fact that drawings with light and shade effects may be very con- 
ventional and far from representing truly all the values of the sub- 
ject. They are drawings rather than paintings; that is, they are 
studies of form more than of values, and do not give either the rela- 
tive values of the object alone or its values in comparison with its 
surroundings. The word " painting," as here used, means a drawing 
in which values and the effect are made of first importance ; and in 
this sense a painting may be done in charcoal or the pencil as well as 
with the brush. 

Use of background. — A drawing begun in this way may be car- 
ried as far as is desired; it may give all the values of the object 
alone, it may suggest a background, or it may give the full values 
of the object and its background. 

A drawing such as Fig. 27 may be relieved by a background 
wherever the object appears lighter than the background. Without 
being strong enough to be a complete study of values, such a drawing 
may be interesting and true in expressing the character of the subject 
— its solidity and construction. 

Light and shade drawings, carried on as explained above, give the 
very best practice in drawing, and whatever the aim of the pupil may 
be, he should work in this way part of the time, less time being required 
to study the relative values of the object or figure than is required to 
represent the object and its surroundings. 

To study values. — The best method of studying when values are 
first in importance must now be considered. In this case it is most 
necessary to obtain the effect of the masses, and the student should 
begin by suggesting them. As quickly as possible the entire surface 
of the paper should be covered so as to lightly express the principal 
lights and darks. When the masses of dark have been suggested, 
the student should study form and construction until the masses are 
seen to be correctly indicated; then they should be strengthened, their 
details brought out, and the study finished by carefully representing all 
details just as in the case of the drawing (Fig. 27) which is a study of 
form and local values instead of a study of full values. But the stu- 
dent must not forget the impression of light and dark which the subject 
creates, and while perfecting the drawing, the greatest pains must be 
taken not to lose the values. 



Drawing and painting. — In reality the student should be working 
in one of two directions without regard to the medium with which he 

Fig. 28. From Charcoal Study by Sir Joshua Reynolds. 

makes the light and shade drawing. He should be studying drawing 
or studying painting, — using the word " painting " in the sense that 
a representation of all the values causes one to think of the subject 


simply and not of the medium employed, and in the sense that a 
drawing or picture is a work of art in proportion as it hides the me- 
dium employed and its handling. 

To obtain the best results the art student must both draw and 
paint, and, even while working with black and white, he must use 
both methods. Frequently art students study drawing alone, and 
this accounts for the general disregard of values. Representing a 
cast or a figure with crayon or pencil upon white paper without the 
use of a background is study of drawing, and certainly cannot give 
the effect of the object, when the object is light against dark instead 
of dark against light. It is not surprising that pupils whose work 
has been largely of this nature should not be able to see the values 
in a simple group of still life. 

The difference between a sketch and a study, and that between a 
study or drawing, and a painting (using painting in the sense of a 
drawing giving values), is shown by Figs. 26, 27, and 28. 

Fig. 26 is by Raphael, and represents the Virgin and child. It 
shows the first light touches and the stronger ones by which the 
form was gradually obtained, and . illustrates the fact that the 
artist works upon figure subjects just as the student was directed 
in "Free-Hand Drawing" to begin his study of the geometric 

Fig. 27 is from a pencil study by Leonardo da Vinci ; it is a careful 
and true drawing as far as character and modelling are concerned, but 
it does not give the values, and is not a painting in the sense of repre- 
senting light and color in addition to the form. 

Fig. 28 is from a charcoal study by Sir Joshua Reynolds, and when 
compared with Fig. 27 illustrates the difference between a study of 
form simply, or a drawing, and a study of values which may be called 
a painting. Although done with charcoal, this drawing gives at first 
glance the effect of nature as regards light, color, and form, which it 
should be the aim of the painter to represent ; and it is much more 
satisfactory as a painting than many colored paintings which are not 
true in values. 

When the student is at work he should always have in mind the 
making of a sketch such as Fig. 26, or a study such as Fig. 27, or a 
painting such as Fig. 28, but he must not forget while working for 


tone and values that Fig. 28 is as careful and as true in drawing as 
Fig. 27. 

Painting method advisable. — The public school pupil should begin 
with pencil outline ; from this he should advance to light and shade 
work with the pencil, which may at first represent objects without a 
background ; but in the high school he should study values, and 
although pupils study drawing without intending to make a specialty 
of art, they should be taught to look at nature artistically so as to 
realize the effects of light and dark and color which she presents. 
To do this pupils must study values, and nearly all light and shade 
study in high and all elementary schools should represent the object 
and its surroundings" in their true relations of light and dark. 

Time^sketches. — Students so frequently forget the subject they 
are studying, while thinking of the medium or of unimportant details, 
that time-sketches are necessary if rapid progress is to be made ; 
and, regardless of the medium used, students of light and shade 
should be obliged frequently to make time-sketches in so short a time 
that they are compelled to work in the right way. If the time of the 
first sketches is limited to a few minutes each, pupils are obliged to 
look for the essentials, and to suggest them by light touches. If 
they mechanically try to produce finished results representing details 
their drawings are too incomplete and poor to satisfy themselves. 
Students who work mechanically and study details will, on com- 
paring their work with the drawings of students who have worked 
properly, generally try to see effects, and to suggest them lightly 
and quickly. 

The first time-sketches in light and shade may do little more than 
suggest the principal masses of light and dark. Students should 
understand, while making them, that their aim must be to represent 
what is seen as far as this is possible in the time, and to do this by 
telling the truth always, and never allowing any part of the drawing 
to be different in effect from the part it represents. Students often 
work carelessly, knowing that parts of the drawing are different from 
the parts they represent, but intending to change them later on. Such 
work produces drawings which are dark when they should be light, 
and which are very unsatisfactory and different from what the students 
know they ought to be. 


A Student should not begin to make a drawing until he has studied 
the subject and determined just what he has to do, in order to place 
no darks upon :the drawing except to sugge3t corresponding darks of 
the object, and in order to avoid representing unimportant details 
either of light or of dark before the masses are correctly expressed. 
The spirit and the effect are the important things, and these should 
be thought of first and last ; if this is not done the drawing must 
always be mechanical. The artistic method is that which at first 
lightly suggests the important features, and then, as they are found 
to be correct, strengthens them and accents the drawing, never allow- 
ing it to remain false in effect or values, so that whenever the student 
stops work the drawing is satisfactory and true as far as it has been 

Unsatisfactory methods. — Students are often allowed to draw 
an object or a group of objects by studying and finishing its parts 
in detail. As explained in " Free-hand Drawing," this method is 
very unsatisfactory, for no one has an eye perfect enough to obtain 
masses and proportions correctly by simply considering the details 
of the masses. 

Another method is that of "blocking out," which considers curves 
as composed of straight lines, and curved surfaces as composed of 
many plane surfaces. The student will be assisted in making a cor 
rect drawing if, after having suggested the form, he studies it in detail 
to discover any tendency to angularity in parts which at first glance 
seem of regular curvature. But he will not be assisted in studying 
nature by any method which makes his drawings become false in any 
particular, or become mere illustrations of methods of working or 

An illustration of the blocking-out method is given by Fig. 29. 
This drawing shows how students sometimes represent the masses 
of light and dark by two tones without gradation, and often separated 
by arbitrary straight lines, when in nature the gradation from light 
to shadow is quite gradual and not at all angular. Frequently many 
hours are spent upon drawings which are not carried beyond this 
conventional stage. Such work is intended to cause the student to 
realize that the effect of the object is due to opposed masses of light 
and shadow which are but slightly varied in tone and are often sharply 



defined. But too often pupils fail to realize that this is their purpose, 
and consider them as serious studies. After having worked some 
time in determining arbitrary dividing lines of light and shade which 
they do not see, and which are so untrue as only to be suitable for 
the most conventional work in 
design, pupils then begin to make 
more finished drawings in the 
same way by blending with the 
stump the separation between 
light and dark determined as in 
Fig. 29. Drawings such as Fig. 29 
are so different from nature that 
while at work upon the blended 
drawings all effect of the masses 
is often destroyed; and though, 
when rightly presented, good will 
result from the making of a few 
blocked-out drawings in two values 
and without gradation, students 
should never be allowed to spend 

much time on such drawings. A drawing of this nature should be 
made in a few minutes and should not be highly finished or con- 
sidered as more than a conventional mode of expression which 
illustrates the fact that nature's effects are those of masses of light 
and of shadow in contrast. Students should never be allowed to use 
a medium in a way which suggests an attempt 
at light and shade effects but which does not 
represent nature well enough to give the im- 
pression of the roundness and particular 
solidity of the object. 

Line method. — Fig. 30 represents a method 
; similar to that illustrated by Fig. 29, but 
which makes use of separate lines to produce 
the effect of shadow. As a representation of 
a sphere Fig. 30 is very unsatisfactory, for certainly, if unassisted in 
any way, no one would think of a sphere when looking at the illus« 
tration. But it is common for drawings to be finished in this way. 

Fig. 29. 

Fig. 30. 


and copies which are even less satisfactory than Fig. 30 are often 
given to public school pupils in order to show them how to make 
light and shade drawings. 

The origin of this method is probably found in the fact that the 
use of the stump tends to careless work on the part of the pupil, and 
also in the fact that separate lines can be reproduced by cheap pro- 
cesses. But as often taught, it illustrates the absurdity of attempting 
to formulate rules by which light and shade drawings may be made. 

Center lines. — A common way of beginning is by drawing a center 
line about which parts may be symmetrically placed. Thus in 
Fig. 8 the axes of the cone and cylinder would be drawn before 
any parts of the contours, and in figure drawing a diagrammatic skele- 
ton might be sketched by means of lines representing the center lines 
of the limbs and the body as in Fig. 31, or a variation of Fig. 31 might 
be made by suggesting the mass of the ribs and that of the pelvis. 

Center lines are not usually seen, and those mentioned for the group. 
Fig. 8, and those of Fig. 31, serve simply to suggest the directions of 
the masses. The student who draws from nature will 
obtain the results given by the center lines much 
more satisfactorily by suggesting, instead of center 
lines which are invisible and which are often difficult 
to imagine, the principal contours of the parts ; these 
are visible, no act of the imagination is required to 
determine them, and the light lines which suggest 
them are an aid in the completion of the drawing and 
often will remain in the final effect, while center lines, 
if drawn, must be erased. 
Fig. 31. When the student does not draw from nature, center 

lines will be of great assistance, and the student is advised to draw 
them. Much pleasure and profit will be derived from the designing 
of figure compositions in which the figures are represented as in Fig. 
31, or by variations of this sketch ; but when it is not necessary to 
depend upon the memory, unnecessary lines should not be drawn, 
and the progress of the drawing should depend not so much upon 
analysis of the construction as upon a feeling of the form which from 
the first leads to the expression of its essentials by means of the most 
important features actually seen. 


Authority for all methods. — It is possible to find noted authori- 
ties for almost any view of any question, and in art the words or 
work of men who are or have been prominent are used in support of 
methods opposed to those of this book. The study of values, for 
instance, has been neglected in many of the schools of this country 
and Europe, and is given little attention even now in some quite 
noted ones. In some schools pupils are allowed to finish one part 
of a drawing before other parts are even suggested. Thus in a fig- 
ure we find them painting the first day the head, the second the 
shoulders, and so on till on the last day of the pose they get to the 
feet or possibly not so far as this, the background being carried 
along with the figure. By such work it is almost impossible to ob- 
tain a harmonious whole, for the effect which any part will produce 
cannot be determined until it can be compared with all the other 
parts, and until the whole canvas is covered so as to give the desired 
effect. This principle applies as much to an outline or a light and 
5hade drawing as to a color study. But even if the eye were trained 
to work correctly under such difficult conditions, it would be impossible 
to obtain harmony by correctly drawing what is before the eye at 
different times, for the light and shade and color effects of the subject 
are continually changing. Even in the studio the effects due to sun- 
shine and a gray day are entirely different. Not only this, but during 
different hours of the same day the effects of color and light and 
shade are different, and it will be impossible to produce a satisfactory 
whole by simply representing what is seen when the pupil works 
upon and finishes the different parts. 

Effect must be chosen. — The sentiment of the drawing and its 
effects of light and shade and color must be selected by the artist 
from the different changeable effects which the subject presents, and 
then he must work all the time with these desired effects in mind. 
To do this he must suggest as quickly as possible the desired effect 
when it is before him, and in all later work he must be careful not to 
lose or injure it. It is most important that both the student and the 
artist work for the spirit and the effect of the whole until it is correctly 
suggested; then the detail may be studied and the parts finished. 

Public ideals often false. — Not only in values but in outline 
work is authority to be found for inartistic methods. Thus we are 


told that a drawing should be finished bit by bit with firm, decided, 
and exact fine lines, or perhaps with soft gray lines drawn at one 
touch. It is not strange the public has come to regard the perfect 
circle drawn at first touch by Giotto as the symbol of the best art 
work, and to believe that perfection at first touch is not only 
desirable, but possible to obtain. We are told that there must be 
no variety of line in an outline drawing, and that in light and shade 
an exact and perfect outline should be secured, and then the light 
and shade placed within it. If instead of following the advice of 
any one author, artist, or teacher, each person should study for him- 
self all the points involved, the adoption of inartistic methods would 
be far less general. Those who study for themselves will be led to 
ask why begin in light and shade work with an outline which often 
represents contours that are lost in the shadow, and which can no 
more express roundness than the circle suggests the light and shade 
upon the sphere. 


The Studio and Fittings. 

The studio. — The studio should be a room not less than 20 feet 
square ; one that is 20 feet wide and 30 feet long, or larger, is desir- 
able. It should have a large window facing, if possible, slightly east 
of north ; this direction should be determined by the North Star, as 
the compass points due north in very few places. The studio should 
be at the top of the building in order to avoid reflections from other 
buildings, and its walls should be very high. Rooms are seldom 
high enough for studios, and it is customary to extend their height 
by means of a skylight which faces north and has a window 6 or 8 
feet high above the ceiling. 

Studio light. — The length of the studio should extend east and 
west so that the principal window may face north and be in the 
center of a long side. The principal window should be about 10 
feet wide, or wider, and extend from near the floor to the ceiling, 
where it should connect with that of the skylight whose angle should 
be about 70°. The roof of the skylight should be inclined and meet 
the ceiling at about the center of the room, or farther back if the 
ceiling is low. By means of the skylight the necessary height may 
be given to any part of a room which is to be converted into a studio. 
There should be no mullions or large framework to divide the window, 
which should extend unbroken from the top of the skylight nearly to 
the floor. 

A room with simply a north window is very cheerless. If possible 
another window should be so placed that sunlight may enter the 
room ; it should be so curtained that the light may be completely 
excluded at will. 

Curtains. — The principal window should be provided with two 
or three curtains arranged to draw up from the bottom, and another 
set should be secured at the top to draw downward. Thus light of 
any amount may be obtained from various directions. 


It is often desirable, especially when light reflects from other 
buildings, to soften the light by a screen made of cheese cloth or 
other thin white material, which may be arranged in the form of a 
curtain to roll or to slide upon wires. A curtain of this kind will 
often give a fair light when placed at a south window, but the north 
window gives the only light suitable for artists or students. 

School studios. — Such a studio is suitable for the artist and. also 
for art classes, and when school buildings are designed, such special 
rooms should be planned for the drawing-rooms. When they are to 
be used for still-life work a shelf about 15 inches or 20 inches wide 
may be secured to the east wall about 22 inches from the floor, or 
shelves may be supported upon movable screens. Pupils should 
work most of the time with the light coming from above and at the 
left, but such a room will allow any arrangement 
of the group with reference to the light. 

The still-life studio should have a table for each 
student; its top should be about 10 inches wide 
and 30 inches long, and it should have a shelf or 
drawer for materials. 

An easel similar to Fig. 32 is preferable to 
the table and no more expensive. The piece A 
should be but a few inches wide, and should sup- 

Fig. 32. A Side View. i,ri«ii tii i* 11 -n 

port the shelf which should be adjustable vertically 
and supported at any angle by the arm B- This easel will require 
less floor space than a table, and has the advantage of not extending 
as other easels do above the drawing and so preventing students 
from seeing the group. 

Materials for Charcoal Drawing. 

Paper. — Paper for charcoal work must be of good quality and 
rough in texture. The Lalanne and Michelet papers are satisfactory 
and cost six cents per sheet. The Coquelin paper is heavier and 
generally most satisfactory; it costs eight cents per sheet.^ Cheaper 
papers can be obtained but are not advisable, as even the best grades 

^ These and following retail prices are given to show the comparative expense 
of the materials. The prices will, of course, fluctuate. 


named are often so uneven in quality that uniform tones cannot be 
obtained. All these papers have watermarks in the form of straight 
parallel lines about an inch apart, which are seen most plainly when 
the sheets are held toward the light. When thus held the water- 
marked name of the paper is seen, and the side from which it is read 
is the right side of the paper and should always be used. The sheets 
are of uniform size about 19 inches by 25 inches. Whatman's cold- 
pressed paper may be used, but no paper is as satisfactory as the 
regular charcoal papers named. 

Charcoal. — There are many grades of charcoal of which only the 
best should be used, for with cheap grades, which are often gritty or 
brown, good results cannot be obtained. Good charcoal should give 
a perfectly black, smooth tint when rubbed into the paper with the 
finger. Every stick should be tried upon the edge of the paper in 
this way before it is used, and if it is gritty or uneven in texture or 
gives a brown tone, it should be broken and thrown away. When 
the sticks consist of round twigs the central part of a stick is often 
soft and brown while the outer parts are black ; care must be taken 
to avoid using sticks not black throughout. 

The charcoal made in France by Cont^ of split twigs and called 
Fusains Venetien is very satisfactory. It is packed in boxes holding 
50 sticks and costs about 45 cents a box. 

Extra hard charcoal in boxes holding 50 sticks, costing about 55 
cents per box and labelled Fusains Venetien Extra Dur, is prepared 
by Berville. The student will do well to obtain a box of this grade and, 
if necessary, a few sticks of a softer grade such as that first named. 

Boards. — The surface of a drawing board is unyielding and 
unsatisfactory to work upon for the grain of the wood and all 
irregularities of its surface indent the paper and injure the drawing. 
Instead of a drawing board, a canvas the size of the sheet of charcoal 
paper on which the drawing is made should be used, and the paper 
secured upon it by thumb tacks. Its yielding surface will help 
greatly to produce an artistic drawing. 

A portfolio may also be used as a board, and the paper secured to 
it by thumb clips, but it is not as satisfactory as the canvas. 

Paper may be stretched upon cloth secured to a stretcher or it may 
be stretched upon the frame without the cloth. When the drawing 


is completed it is then ready to be framed. It is best that paper upon 
a stretcher should have the protection of the cloth or canvas backing. 

Crayons. — Crayons are sometimes used in finishing a charcoal 
drawing, as they are harder and more easily kept sharp. They give 
a deeper black than charcoal, but it is of a different nature, and the 
student is advised to work wholly with the charcoal or wholly with 
the crayon. 

Cont^ crayons in pencil form cost eight cents each, and come in 
five numbers, of which No. 2 is suitable for most work. 

Conte crayons in stick form about 2 inches long cost 18 cents a 
dozen and come in three grades. 

As crayon cannot be readily changed or erased, it is therefore a 
medium for the artist, and not suitable for the student. 

Crayon sauce. — Cont^ crayon sauce comes in rolls about ^ 
inch in diameter and 2 inches long, costing six cents each. This 
sauce is applied with a stump, and although sometimes used in con- 
nection with charcoal, there is the same objection to its use as to the 
crayon pencil. 

Stumps. — A charcoal drawing may be made wholly with the point 
of the charcoal and without any blending or rubbing of the tones ; or 
it may consist of tones produced by rubbing the charcoal into the 
paper with a stump. Both methods of work have been and are 
taught, and there are teachers who think that a drawing can be made 
in only one of these ways. 

The objection to the use of the stump is that students seem to 
think the stump will make the drawing if it is applied vigorously to 
the paper ; and as a result the surface of the paper is quickly des- 
troyed by the stump so that no amount of work can produce a satis- 
factory drawing. When the point of the charcoal is used without 
the stump, the student is more likely to think of form.- But to secure 
the best drawings it is not necessary that a drawing be made \diolly 
by use of the point, and the best method is that which confines the 
pupil to no one way of working, but allows him to secure effects in 
the readiest ways. 

Paper stumps. — These are made of gray paper in many sizes, 
and cost from 5 cents to 15 cents each ; they are intended to be 
used for producing even tones by blending the tones given by the 


charcoal point. If thus used they should be very lightly applied to 
the paper, for if any pressure is applied they will quickly destroy its 

Leather stumps. — Leather stumps of chamois skin are made 
in iaany sizes, and cost from 6 cents to 40 cents each ; they are 
intended to be used to produce ev^n tones by rubbing crayon sauce 
upon paper, and are necessary when this^ medium is chosen. 

If pressure is applied when any stump is thus used it will quickly 
spoil the paper, and the student is advised not to use a stump for 
rubbing the charcoal, and also not to use crayon sauce, which neces- 
sitates the use of the stump for this purpose. 

Any blending required in a charcoal drawing is best given by rub- 
bing lightly with the finger the tint placed upon the paper, taking 
care that the finger is not moist from perspiration. The stump is 
most valuable not for its intended purpose, but used as an eraser. 
A clean stump will lift the charcoal from a place too small to allow 
the finger to be used upon it and will prove very valuable ; it may 
be cleaned by pressing and twisting it into bread. 

Tortillon stumps. — These are small stumps about 3 inches long 
and yi of an inch diameter, and cost ten cents per dozen. They 
may be made by tightly rolling charcoal paper into the form of a 
sharp-pointed pencil. They are very valuable, as they may be used 
as an eraser for picking out small lights and for refining and soften- 
ing sharp edges, and in fact for any drawing where a part is to 
be lightened instead of darkened. Various means of erasing are 
described as follows. 

The finger. — When it is required to soften or lighten masses or any 
details not too small, the finger is the best eraser, but it cannot be 
used to obtain a very light detail within a mass of dark. The finger 
may be cleaned by rubbing it upon cloth or, better still, upon bread. 

The breath. — A large surface maybe lightened quite quickly and 
uniformly, especially when the drawing is in its first stages, by blow- 
ing strongly upon it ; and a small part may be lightened by blowing 
lipon it through a tube, which may be readily obtained by rolling 
a sheet of paper. 

Bread. — Fresh bread made without lard or other oily substance 
is the eraser most satisfactory and generally used in charcoal work, 


as it will quickly remove the charcoal from the paper without the 
slightest injury to its surface. It may be rolled into pointed stump- 
like pieces, by which small lights may be taken out, and it is prefer- 
able to a sharp-pointed eraser because it does not indent the paper 
and because it produces a light which is not too keen-edged for 
artistic drawings. 

Rapping. — Any dark may be lightened by rapping the paper with 
a pencil or other hard object so that the particles of charcoal are set 
in motion and caused to fall from the paper. 

Faber's pencil eraser. — This eraser is made in the form of a lead 
pencil, and is the best form of rubber eraser for light and shade 
work, as the wood keeps the rubber from becoming soiled and 
makes it convenient to draw with. If the paper is worked upon so 
long that bread will not remove the dark from any part which should 
be light, it may be necessary to use a rubber pencil eraser. 

Nigrivorine. — This is a sharp-pointed rubber ink-eraser; by 
giving it a thin wedge-shaped point it may be used to produce a 
narrow light when the paper has been worked upon so long that the 
bread will not lighten it sufficiently. It should be used with care so 
as not to indent the paper, and only when the bread or kneaded 
eraser will not answer. 

The artist may sometimes use in place of this eraser a sharp 
knife, with which the lights are scratched out, but pupils should not 
be advised or allowed to use the knife, which at best does not im- 
prove the drawing. It requires much skill to use a knife without 
spoiling a drawing. 

Faber's kneaded eraser. — This is an eraser consisting of rubber 
which may be worked into any form as if it were a piece of bread ; 
it is soft, pliable, does not injure the paper, and resembles bread so 
much in its results that it may be used in its place, thus avoiding 
the dirt occasioned by the use of bread. 

Cloth and chamois skin. — A common cloth or chamois skin may 
be used as an eraser, but the student is advised to use the means pre- 
viously explained in preference, as these force the charcoal into the 
grain of the paper so thoroughly that unless the surface is afterwards 
worked over with the charcoal point there is not enough variety of 
tone, and consequently the drawing lacks atmosphere. 



Fixatif . — The tones of a charcoal drawing consist of fine black 
powder, which, as has been explained, is readily shifted about or 
removed from the surface of the paper, and in order to preserve the 
sketch it must be fixed or varnished when it is completed, with a 
liquid called fixatif. 

Good fixatif should be very light-colored, and should dry upon the 
hand so as to be quite adhesive just before it is dry, but it should 
leave no powder upon the hand. Inferior grades of fixatif are often 
sold, of which several times the quantity that should be required may 
be used without fixing a drawing, but often producing a surface of 
powder upon the drawing, which spoils it. 

Fixatif may be made by adding to a pint of the best alcohol about 
4 ounces of the white shellac liquid varnish, and allowing it to 
stand until the upper part becomes a clear amber color, when this 
clear part may be poured into another bottle. The fixatif may be 
used before it has settled, but upon the best drawings only the clear 
fixatif should be used. There should not be enough shellac in the 
fixatif to cause it to be very sticky, for this will make the drawing 
shine and will spoil it. 

Fixing the drawing. — Any common atomizer will serve to spray 
the fixatif upon the drawing, but those with fine tubes will be 
clogged with the gum if they are not cleaned with alcohol each time 
they are used. The best atolnizer is one made of two large folding 
tin tubes and costing 25 cents. 

The atomizer may be used to spray the fixatif upon the drawing, 
or the fixatif may be applied to the back of the drawing with a brush. 
To use the atomizer the drawing should be placed horizontally upon 
a table. The atomizer should be held far enough from the drawing 
so that no large drops will reach it, and the spray should be directed 
above it so that it falls gently upon the drawing. If the atomizer is 
near the drawing or the spray strikes it forcibly the charcoal will 
be moved about on the paper and the drawing will thus be spoiled. 
A little fixatif should be blown upon the drawing, which should then 
be allowed to dry, for if the surface of the paper becomes wet the 
drawing will be spoiled. When the lighter parts have been fixed so 
that the charcoal will not rub off upon the finger or cloth, a hole 
should be cut in a piece of paper so that fixatif may be blown through 


it upon the darker parts without striking the lighter parts. No 
more fixatif should be applied to any part than is required to hold 
it, for the drawing will be spoiled if varnished so that it shines. 

The charcoal is most apt to be blown or floated from its proper 
position in the first stages of fixing, so very little should then be 
applied without waiting for it to dry. 

To apply fixatif with the brush, the drawing must be secured in a 
horizontal position, face downward, with nothing underneath it that 
may touch it. It may be tacked to any frame or stretcher, or opposite 
edges may be secured to wooden strips. Care must be taken not to 
rub the drawing while thus securing it. The fixatif should be applied 
to the back of the drawing with a brush about 3 inches wide. The 
drawing will thus be fixed without danger of injury by drops or by 
making the drawing shine. The paper should remain horizontal 
until thoroughly dry. Fixatif applied to the back should be stronger 
than that which should be used upon the front of the drawing. 

Making a Charcoal Drawing. 

First directions. — The first work in charcoal should be the quick 
sketching of simple groups of still life composed of objects of dif- 
ferent colors; but if students have not had sufficient practice to enable 
them to draw in outline correctly, they may work from single objects, 
testing their values, as explained in this book, and the drawing, as 
explained in *' Free-Hand Drawing." 

These time-sketches should be upon half-sheets of charcoal paper, 
and not even the youngest pupils should use paper smaller than a 
quarter-sheet, for charcoal is not suited to small drawings. 

It is impossible for the student to realize the effect of his drawing 
if it is not held as far as possible from him and at right angles to 
the direction in which he looks upon it ; and while drawing, the arm 
should always be outstretched, for if much bent, it will be so cramped 
that free work cannot be done, and it will also cause the eyes to be 
too near the drawing. Even at arm's length the student will fail to 
realize the errors of the drawing, and he should remember to place it 
beside the group often and study both from a distance. 



The hand or sleeve should not be allowed to rest upon the paper, 
for this will spoil its surface, and if the sleeve or hand rest upon the 
drawing, it will be erased. If the hand cannot be held steadily 
enough to obtain the fine details, it may be rested upon a ruler or 
other form of mahl-stick held in the left hand so as to rest against 
the right-hand edge of the sketcher. 

The student who has studied outline drawing for some time before 
beginning light and shade will be able to plan and place his draw- 
ing to good advantage upon the paper without blocking in its prin- 
cipal proportions by light touches connecting the prominent corners 
in its contour ; but those who are not able to do this may suggest 
the space the drawing is to occupy by very light charcoal touches, 
forming the blocking-in lines illustrated on page 1 1 of " Free-Hand 
Drawing." The height and width may then be measured and 
changed if necessary, and then within the space thus obtained the 
student may work as directed. Students are advised, however, not 
to draw these lines, but to simply think of them while blocking in 
the masses of dark which take the place of the lines and determine 
the proportions of the group. 

Great care must be taken that students do not work upon the objects 
one at a time, drawing an object, then its shadow, and then its sur- 
roundings. This mechanical work can be avoided only by insisting 
upon any shadow and its adjoining cast shadow being put in of uni- 
form value at once, and all such masses in the group being thus sug- 
gested in a time so short as to forbid study of details in these masses. 

Before beginning to draw, the pupil should nearly close his eyes 
or in some other way blur his vision, so as to see simply the effect 
of the group, — its masses of light and dark. He should study 
the masses of dark long enough to decide their forms, positions, and 
relations, and should then begin his drawing by lightly suggesting 
the darks and as quickly as possible placing upon the paper tints 
which represent the masses of dark, without regard to whether they 
are produced by dark local color or by shadows with their adjoining 
cast shadows. He should use a piece of charcoal of medium grade, 
of perfectly smooth quality, and of pure black color, and he should 
not sharpen it, but with its side should place wide tints adjoining 
each other and producing tones as nearly uniform as possible. The 

/ --■•^ir^ 

Fig. 33. From Charcoal Sketch — Time, K Hour. 

Fig. 34. From Charcoal Sketch —Time, 54 Hour. 



charcoal should be passed regularly and rapidly along the surface, 
producing a tint by both the upward stroke and the downward stroke. 
The direction of strokes throughout the entire drawing should be 
about the same, but the direction is of no importance as long as it is 
not unpleasantly noticeable in the effect. The masses may be laid 
in by using a short stub of charcoal placed flat on the paper. 

The first stage. — The first stage of the drawing should consist 
of hatchings, suggesting the masses of dark more lightly than in 
Fig. 33, and not bounded by outlines. Thtis in Fig. 33 the dark 
masses are those of the dark vase and its cast shadow, the shadow 
and cast shadow of the mug, and the shadow of the plinth. The 
student should not spend over five minutes in suggesting these 
masses, and should not separate the cast shadows from the shadows. 
When these masses are lightly suggested, their proportions may be 
tested by measuring the height and width of the whole group ; and 
if not correct the proportions should be changed, increasing the 
strength of the tones as this is done. 

The second stage. — The second stage of the drawing is shown ' 
by Fig. 2iZ'> ^"^ ^^ obtained by putting in the background and 
strengthening the darks to bring out the cast shadows. The stu- 
dent should not draw outlines or determine contours except as they 
come from gradually developing the forms of the masses of the differ- 
ent values. In doing this the charcoal should be carried over the 
objects across the contours and the background as often as possible, 
in order that sharp outlines may not destroy the effect of atmos- 
phere, which comes from the contrast of tones only. The student 
should be able to produce the second stage of the rendering of a 
simple subject, such as Fig. 35, in not over fifteen minutes, for if he 
works slowly, he will be thinking of outlines and details instead of 
effects and masses ; and if he begins thus, he will continue to work 
mechanically for the unimportant, without obtaining the essentials. 
Students have been so generally taught to make an outline drawing 
before beginning to shade that many find it very difficult not to 
think about outlines; but if they do not force themselves to cover 
the paper so as to suggest the principal masses, as in Fig. 33, in a 
few minutes, they will never be able to forget outlines and work 
freelv and artistically 



The third stage. — When the masses have Ijeen given, as in 
Fig. 33, all tests needed to prove form and proportions to be correct 
should be applied, and any corrections required should be made not 
by drawing outlines, but by shifting the tones and gradually strength- 
ening them until the general effect becomes as strong as is necessary. 
The more important details should then be suggested, and the third 
stage, represented by Fig. 34, results. If the form must be changed 
by lifting a dark tone, bread may be used ; in this way the glitter light 
on the vase was obtained and some of the background tone removed 
to give the light face of the plinth. Rapid time-sketches should be 
made until students can give the effect of a simple group with as 
much detail as Fig. 34 represents, in not over half or three-quarters 
of an hour ; when able to do this, they should learn how to carry the 
drawing farther,, as shown by Fig. 35. 

Blending. — In Figs. 33 and 34 the charcoal is simply hatched 
upon the paper, no blending being given by the stump or the finger, 
but tones as atmospheric as possible being obtained directly by the 
use jof the stick of charcoal. But if any part of such a drawing is 
worked upon with the finger or in any other way so that the grain 
of the paper is thoroughly filled, the blending thus produced will make 
the rough texture found elsewhere in the drawing unpleasant, and so 
necessitate an equal amount of finish in all other equally important 
parts of the drawing. 

Any drawing which is to represent much detail will require that 
the grain of the paper, which is not filled when a time-sketch such 
as Fig. 34 is made, be filled by working over the entire surface 
of the paper. This may be done when the paper is not very rough 
by using the fine point of the charcoal to fill in all parts not 
touched in the first use of the charcoal; but this method is very 
slow and unsatisfactory, for the parts which require the most study 
and the use of the eraser will have a different texture from the 
other parts of the drawing. When a drawing is to be carried 
farther than Fig. 34, the best way is to fill in the grain of the 
paper after the drawing is in the state illustrated by Fig. 33 by 
going over all the surface of the paper with the finger used lightly 
as a stump, applying just pressure enough to work the charcoal 
into all the depressions of the paper. If the finger is moist, it 


should first be dried by rubbing it upon charcoal hatched near the 
edge of the paper. 

It is especially important that the finger be passed over all the 
contours of the objects, for if the grain of the paper is not worked 
upon at the contours as much as elsewhere, an atmospheric effect 
cannot be produced. The student must not draw outlines in any 
stage of a light and shade drawing, or positively place contours until 
the very end. Then he will not be afraid of losing outlines or of 
going over the contours as they are suggested in Fig. 34. 

The student must not omit to work over the entire surface of the 
paper, even that of the lightest parts ; thus the side of the plinth or 
of any lighter object, supposing such to be in the group, must receive 
a light tint and as much rubbing as any other part, for the lightest 
surfaces have gradation upon them, and an atmospheric drawing can- 
not be made if the grain of the paper upon these parts is not worked 
upon as much as elsewhere. 

It may often be necessary to place a tint upon a light surface and 
then remove it, in whole or in part, in order to destroy the grain of 
the paper and produce a tint as light as is desired. 

Finishing the drawing. — When the grain of the paper has thus 
been equally worked upon and thoroughly filled throughout, the 
student may work upon the resulting tones with the point of the 
charcoal and with that of the tortillon or rolled bread or kneaded 
eraser, drawing details and perfecting values. It will not be neces- 
sary for further rubbing to be done, or the finger or stump used 
except as an eraser to lighten parts made too dark. 

In thus finishing the drawing a long piece of hard charcoal should 
be used which is sharpened to a wedge-shaped point, similar in form 
to that of a pencil used for mechanical drawing, in order that the 
point may wear longer than a conical point. It must be sharpened 
upon sandpaper or a file. A short piece of charcoal should be 
placed in a crayon holder. 

The student must aim to use the charcoal point so as to obtain 
just the right form and value for every part, and he should use the 
point of the tortillon or other eraser to obtain narrow lights. By 
means of these different points he should carefully work all detail 
into place upon the foundation given by rubbing with the finger the 
drawing illustrated by Fig 34. 


No sharp contours. — There must be no very sharp edge or keen 
separations in the drawing. This is very difficult for students to 
realize; often they wish to lay a straight- edged piece of paper 
down along the edges of a plinth, for instance, and then use the 
eraser along the paper to produce a straight-edged contour. If prop- 
erly taught that a free-hand outline drawing must be made entirely 
free-hand and so that its lines do not resemble those given by the 
use of a straight edge, they would not expect to make a good light 
and shade drawing in such a way ; for they would understand that no 
mechanical aid nor mechanical accuracy is permissible in an artistic 
representation of even the most geometric and exact object. An 
artistic drawing must have the variety in both line and tone which 
results from free-hand drawing upon a surface slightly yielding and 
not pefectly smooth. There must, however, be a definite represen- 
tation or separation of such parts as the edges of the plinth and 
other objects. 

If the sharp line given by using the eraser along the straight edge 
is slightly blended by using the tortillon stump, the effect will be 
improved, and if edges not quite straight which come from use of the 
charcoal point free-hand are too sharp (as often they will be), the 
point of the tortillon may be used to blend them slightly and thus 
give a separation which is decided and also soft enough to be 

The student must remember that there are no outlines in nature, 
and that he cannot in light and shade artistically represent objects 
by outlining them either with dark or with light. The only parts 
where there should be the effect of a line are the parts which repre- 
sent very narrow shadows or very narrow lights. Under the plinth 
in Fig. 17 is a shadow which gives the effect of a line and which 
must be represented, and so must all similar details of dark or of 
light ; but no object is completely or even largely outlined by such 
effects, and no work of art true to nature can be outlined, for outlines 
are pure conventions. Hence the student should not begin a light 
and shade drawing by outlines for they will be worked out of the 
effect with difficulty. In no part must the contours be defined by 
keen-edged tones, and the tortillon stump must always be used to 
soften all separations that have become too sharp. 

Fig. 38. Fram Clmrccol Study* 


Variety necessary. — There must be variety in all drawings, and 
so in charcoal work in some parts the contours must be more sharply 
drawn than in others ; these are the parts which are accented by 
keen lights, strong shadows, and by strong contrasts, and they must 
be more prominent than the contours which are more or less lost 
in the masses of light or the masses of shadow. These sharper 
parts of the drawing are its accents, but they will not be noticed if 
all parts are made quite sharp. It will not do to have contours 
uniformly sharp even if they are not very keen, for this will produce 
a hard and mechanical effect. On the other hand, it will not do to 
have all contours and definitions uniformly soft, for this will produce 
an unpleasant and characterless effect. 

The photographs may assist the student to understand the above 
remarks. Fig. 14 represents contours and details by almost uniform 
sharpness, and is far less pleasing than Fig. 20, in which the contours 
are decided in parts and almost lost in other parts. These figures 
illustrate the fact that a photograph as well as a drawing may be 
mechanical and hard through uniform sharpness of definition, or may 
be pleasing and artistic through variety of definition and subordina- 
tion of detail. 

The background subordinate. — In any study the lines or details 
of the background or other unimportant parts should not be made as 
prominent as in Fig. 14, but should be suggested as slightly as in Fig. 
20, or omitted altogether, in order that the time may be spent in study 
of the detail of the objects which form the group and are important. 

The illustrations. — Fig. 36 is from a charcoal drawing upon which 
several days' were spent. The light was directly overhead, and the 
plaster rosette was very dark in color from age, so that the drawing 
seems dark; it is, however, quite true to nature in values. 

Fig. 37 gives, full size, a part of the rosette and bottle of Fig 36, 
and shows the texture produced by working as explained. To pro- 
duce the best effect of atmosphere the grain of the paper should 
show about as strongly as in this figure. It is not necessary to com- 
, pletely work out the watermarks of the parallel lines unless they 
come in parts where much fine detail is to be represented. 

Figs. 35, 39, and 41 are from two-hour time-sketches by first-year 
art-school students ; they illustrate the work which is of greatest 


Vie. 40, From Charrcal Study. 


t'ic. 4: .uToai Sltidv. 

Fig. 43. From Charcoal Study. 

Fig. 44. From Charcoal Study 


value to the art student. He should be satisfied to begin to study 
as explained, and should continue to make time-sketches until able to 
represent such groups as well or nearly as well as these figures, so far 
as values and drawing are concerned, before attempting to paint or 
make highly finished drawings. The student who attempts to paint 
or make finished drawings when not able to see masses and values^ 
will waste his time and produce simply childish or mechanical draw- 
ings without breadth or effect. 

Figs. 36, 38, 40, and 42 are from drawings upon full-size sheets 
of charcoal paper by students of the entering class of the Massa- 
chusetts Normal Art School. They illustrate the work the students 
should learn to do after they are able to make good time-sketches. 
The reproductions are not quite true in values to the originals, but 
they show the careful study of masses and details which students 
should be led to make in order to obtain a good foundation for more 
advanced work. All who intend to study painting should first study 
values in charcoal from still life, for this study will do more for the 
beginner than any other work ; it will give him knowledge which he 
may be many years in obtaining if he begins painting without the 
foundation of drawing and values. 

After this study of still life which enables the student to see form 
and values, he may draw from the antique such subjects as Figs. 43 
and 44 ; after this work, he may draw from life; and finally he may 
study painting, beginning with still life which will prepare for the 
painting of the head and figure. 

Artists often use gray paper and put in the lightest parts with 
white chalk, but the student is earnestly advised to use simply white 
paper and charcoal, and to use his judgment as to when to apply the 
various methods explained for erasing and changing the drawing and 
the values, remembering that all methods may at different times be 
serviceable, particularly those first on the list. 

When the student can draw he may combine different methods 
and mediums in the same drawing, and use as much latitude as the 
artists of the past display in the work they have left for us to study, 
and which we will study to our great advantage if wise enough to 
profit by our opportunities. 



Pencils. — Pencils should be of good quality, free from grit, and 
capable of producing soft grays and strong blacks. It is not pos- 
sible to specify the grade of pencil required for free-hand drawing 
either in outline or in light and shade work. The " broad gray line" 
drawn with a very soft pencil is often thought to be essential to good 
drawing ; but a drawing must be judged, not by the quality of line 
employed, but by what it represents. As different drawings rep- 
resent different subjects and different effects, they cannot be treated 
in the same way, and so one may require a soft pencil and another 
a hard one. 

The grade of pencil to be used depends upon the size of the 
drawing, upon whether its chief purpose is to represent form or 
values, and also upon the amount of detail it is to represent. 

If a pencil sketch is to be made quickly as a note simply of light 
and shade effects, a soft pencil will be necessary to obtain the best 
results. If the sketch is quite small and intended as a study of 
the form and details of construction of a head or other subject, more 
than as a study of the masses of light and dark, it will be necessary 
to use a medium or even a hard pencil. It is impossible to make a 
small drawing which represents many details by the use of a soft 
pencil or a broad gray line, and the smaller the drawing and the 
more detail it has, the harder the pencil must be. The old masters 
often used a pencil made of pure silver, which gave a soft, smooth 
gray line ; it could be made very sharp, and would retain its point 
for a long time, and was well suited to the careful studies of form, 
such as Fig. 27, which these famous artists often made. The pencil 
used must be suited to the work to be done, and may range from the 
softest (6 B or 4 B), which may be used for such sketches as Figs. 
24, 50, 53, 54, and 60, to grades such as 2 B, B, or HB, which may 



be used for such work as Figs. 56 and 57 ; while pencils as hard as 
2 H or even 4 H may be used upon very small drawings or very 
careful studies, such as Fig. 27. 

For all studies of values and rapid notes of effects, it is well to 
use as soft a pencil as the size of the drawing and the surface of the 
paper will permit. Students who have to make many trial lines in 
order to obtain the proportions cannot use soft pencils in making 


Fig. 45- 

these touches, for they will produce lines so heavy that the eraser 
will be required, and even then the paper may not be left in good 
condition. Pupils who cannot draw fairly well should use, in begin- 
ning any sketch, a medium or hard pencil very lightly, so as not to 
indent the paper ; but in accenting an outline drawing whose lines 
have been thus determined, or in giving simply light and shade 
effects, a soft pencil should be used. 

Paper. — The paper to be used depends upon the drawing to be 
made. If the drawing is to be a study of form principally, such as 



Figs. 27 and 59, and if it is to be worked upon with a medium or 
hard pencil and with an eraser, the paper should be tough and 
smooth, though never glazed. If the drawing is to be a rapid study 
of masses and effects of light and shade, such as Figs. 50, 54, 55, 
and 56, the paper should be soft and smooth, and cheap grades are 
more likely to be suited for such sketches than expensive grades. 
A rough paper, such as Whatman's cold-pressed paper, is not 

Fig. 46. 

suited to rapid sketches of light and shade effects, especially when 
the sketches are small, for the grain of the paper produces the 
effect of spots, and smooth tints and atmospheric effects cannot be 
produced without blending the lines with the finger or the stump. 

A very satisfactory drawing may be made upon Whatman's cold- 
pressed paper by blending the pencil tones with the finger, the 
stump, or the eraser, used as explained in Chap. V. The drawing 
thus produced is similar to a charcoal drawing, though much more 
delicate ; it may be made very pleasing and atmospheric, especially 



when the subject does not require strong darks. This method of 
blending a pencil drawing to obtain values is more difficult than the 
use of the charcoal, for it does not allow changes as readily as the 

Fig. 47- 

use of charcoal. It is also less direct than the use of the pencil 
point, consequently students are advised to obtain gradation by the 
use of the point whenever this is possible, and to draw so as to be 
obliged to use the eraser but little. 

Fig. 48. 

The surface of the paper must not be glazed or hard and smooth, 
for it will not take the pencil readily ; it must not be so soft as to 
be torn by the pencil, or by the eraser if it is necessary to use this. 
A good paper for such sketches as Figs. 50, 54, 55, and 56 is given 


"by using the smooth side (the back surface) of English crayon paper. 
This paper is, however, very expensive, and cheap papers will often 
be found which give good results. Paper as cheap as that of a 
daily newspaper is often better suited for rapid notes of effects than 
expensive papers. Paper varies so much that of two lots of the 
same make and grade, one may be excellent and the other unsatis- 
factory, and practice alone will enable one to select paper and pen- 
cils suitable for any particular drawing; but pupils should remember 
that success is not so much a question of materials as of ability to 

Erasers and stumps. — All the materials suitable for charcoal 
and crayon drawing may be used upon a pencil drawing, and in the 
same ways. 

Making a Pencil Drawing. 

The effects of light and shade seen in nature have been explained^ 
and also the ways in which these effects should be studied and 
represented in a charcoal drawing. It must now be understood 
that the student who represents nature by light and shade has the 
same problems whatever the medium he employs, and success 
depends more upon ability to see than upon medium or technique. 
If the student can draw, he can draw with any medium ; he will, of 
course, acquire facility of execution by long use of the medium, but 
no directions can be given which will produce pleasing handling 
except the advice to study long enough to draw quickly and truly. 

Use of pencil point. — The most important directions for pencil 
drawing have been given under the topics " Pencils " and " Paper " ; 
but in addition it may be said that the result should always be 
obtained as directly as possible ; and in rapid sketches, such as 
Fig. 50, the student should aim to produce the effect of atmosphere 
and of nature by means of tones produced by hatching wide pencil 
lines closely together so as to produce the effect of an even tone of 
shade. In more finished drawings, such as Fig. 27, the effect of 
the graded tones required should be produced by working over the 
surface of the paper with the pencil point alone. 

In rapid notes, such as Fig. 50, care must be taken that an un- 
pleasant effect of separate lines is not produced by too much space 

Fig. 49. 

Fig. 50. 

Fig. 51. 



between the lines, and in this work the strokes should generally 
adjoin each other so that the effect of separate lines is not given. 

The most important point in all work introducing light and shade 
effects is that outlines should be avoided whenever this is possible. 
When the values are not given and outlines are required, the out- 

FiG. 52. 

lines should not be uniform in any way, but should be varied in 
width, not continuous, and not perfectly straight or regular, even 
when they represent perfect type forms. See "Free-Hand Drawing," 
Chap. I. 

Various methods. — A pencil sketch may give simply a sugges- 
tion of the form by means of outline, or in addition to the outline 
it may give light and shade effects ranging from the slight touches 
which serve to suggest the roundness of the object to a study of the 
full values. 



The simplest change in an outline drawing in the direction of 
light and shade is given by representing the narrow shadows and by 
suggesting the wider ones by thickening the outlines ; this pro- 
duces what has been called an accented outline drawing. Fig. 45 
is of this nature and much more satisfactory than a uniform outline. 

The next step in advance is given by representing cast shadows 
and by suggesting the shadows by increasing the width of the out- 



Fig. 53. 

lines. When objects are composed of small parts, as the stool (Fig. 
46), this treatment produces an effective sketch which suggests the 
principal divisions of light, shadow, and cast shadow. The figure 
shows how much the cast shadows add to the effect given by the 
accented outline. 

Fig. 47 is similar to Fig. 46, the effect being largely due to out- 
line and to the cast shadows. The drawing differs, however, from 
Fig. 46, as it represents the shadow upon the heel, and thus gives 
the contrast of the masses of light, shadow, and cast shadow, by 
which principally we recognize objects. 



Shadows and cast shadows are given to produce a stronger im- 
pression of nature than can be obtained from an outline, and no 
shading which does not help to suggest the facts should ever be 
placed upon any drawing. If the cast shadow in Fig. 49 were given 
without the shadow side, the effect would not be as satisfactory as a 
simple outline, for the outline would suggest the cube ; while if the 
cast shadow were represented without the shadow side, the first 
impression the drawing would create would be that of curiosity con- 
cerning the nature of the cube which throws a cast shadow and 
yet has no shadow surface. Generally when the cast shadow of 

Fig. 54. 

an object is shown, the shadow surface adjoining the cast shadow 
should be represented whenever it is visible ; and the larger it is 
and the more the object resembles a type solid, the more necessary 
it is to represent it. 

If the shadow side of an object, the cube, for instance (Fig. 49), 
is represented and the cast shadow is omitted, a satisfactory draw- 
ing may result, for an object is often seen when situated so that its 
cast shadow is some distance away from it or even invisible ; but 
when an object is represented as resting upon any other object and 
is shaded to represent a shadow surface, the drawing will generally 
be unsatisfactory if the shadow of the object cast upon its support 
is not represented. 

Fig. 55. From a Pencil Sketch. 


Satisfactory drawings similar to Fig. 48, which represent more or 
less perfectly the shading upon an object, are often given when the 
cast shadow of the object is not represented. Fig. 27 is carried 
much farther than Fig. 48, and is an example of a different nature ; 
it is, however, a drawing, for it consists in part of outline. 

Use of background. — In order to avoid outlines it is necessary 
to use a background ; this may be vignetted against the object and 
extend no farther than is necessary to relieve the parts of the object 
which are lighter than the background. The use of an outline along 
the upper part of the bucket in Fig. 50 is thus avoided, and back- 
grounds may be used in similar ways or may extend completely 
around the drawing as in Figs. 51 and 52. Fig. 51 is more effective 
than Fig. 49, but is still not true to nature, for it represents the edge 
separating the two faces in light by a line. Fig. 52 is more satis- 
factory than Fig. 51, for it represents the objects wholly by light 
and shade and defines the edge separating the two faces of the 
pyramid in light, not by a line as in Fig. 51, but by the slight differ- 
ence seen in the object in the values of the two surfaces. 

Fig. 53 is similar to Fig. 52 but is more effective, as it represents 
objects of different colors and has much stronger contrasts of light 
and dark. Fig. 53 shows the nature of many of the subjects which 
the artist represents and in which the principal contrasts of light 
and dark are often due to color as much as to light and shade. In 
making any drawing an artist represents the most prominent effects, 
and so most sketches give at least the shadows and cast shadows 
and any marked contrasts due to different colors. Figs. 47, 50, 54, 
and 58 show the simplest rendering of these effects ; such sketches 
are quickly made, and are very effective and well suited for illus- 

The student is advised to use this method for rapid sketches 
giving the form and the principal light and shade and color effects; 
and he should fill sketch-books with notes similar to Figs. 50 and 
54 until he can give the form and the masses of dark truly in a few 

This method of making a sketch by means of three or four tones 
is particularly adapted for illustrations which are to be reproduced by 
the cheaper processes, for the tones may be produced by means of 



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lines which may be varied in width and so spaced as to give the 
effect of shade without joining each other ; while the same effect in 
a wash or blended drawing cannot be cheaply reproduced. 
• When the student has time to study more detail than is given by 

Fig. 58. From a Pencil Sketch. 

this rendering, he should employ a background, as in Figs. 52 and 
53 ; and the study in this way of such groups of still life is advisable, 
as it gives the best preparation for work from life such as Figs. 59 
and 60. 

Fig. 58 shows the beginning of a sketch from life. It is carried 
but little farther than the outline stage illustrated by Fig. 26, but a 
sketch begun in this way may be carefully finished without a back- 



ground, as illustrated by Fig. 27 ; or it may be finished with a back- 
ground and be similar in effect to the head of the woman in Fig. 

Fig, 59. From a Pencil Sketch. 

59 ; or it may be carried still farther and be a study of full values 
such as Fig. 28. 

Fig. 60 is a study by Rembrandt which gives the shadows and 
cast shadows and the modelling in the mass of the light. Such a 
drawing is most true and satisfactory when it represents dark objects, 
or objects which appear darker than their background, and the study 



illustrates the fact that the background is always least necessary 
when an object appears darker than its background. 

Interiors and landscapes. — When representing interiors and 
landscape subjects the artist has the same choice as to what he 
will represent as when drawing the subjects already considered. 
He may use simply outline. If this is done the drawing would 

Fig, 6o. From Crayon Sketch by Rembrandt. 

generally be accented; but if not confined to outline, light and 
shade effects would be introduced just as in the sketches previously 

Fig. 55 represents the masses of light and shade and color, and 
shows the method used in Figs. 50 and 54 applied to a more 
extended subject. Figs. 56 and 57 show the same method applied 


in landscape. It is possible to make, with a pencil, studies of full 
values of such subjects ; but it is not easy to do this, and generally 
the artist is satisfied to give the form and suggest the effect by rep- 
resenting the masses of light and shadow, and also those of dark 

The more picturesque -the subject, the more necessary it becomes 
to render it artistically, and the more important it is to avoid out- 
lines ; or, if this cannot be done, to avoid making them uniform in 
strength or direction. Outlines should never be drawn where the 
form is expressed by shading, and, whenever possible, form should be 
given by hatchings of lines forming a tint of shade or shadow as 
illustrated by the lines of the ridges of the fish houses of Fig. 25. 
This applies to all work with the pen as well as the pencil. 

The directions given in Chap. V and in this chapter, to avoid 
uniformity and regularity in both outlines and values, must not be 
construed to mean that regular objects are to be represented as 
irregular. Students often think that it is necessary to represent a 
regular curve, such as an ellipse, by an irregular line, and a straight 
line by lines in different directions; but such drawings are more 
unsatisfactory than those which mechanically represent the facts, 
for they do not represent the facts at all. Regularity cannot be 
represented by what creates the idea of irregularity, and the student 
who takes pains to produce variety will generally produce mechanical 
and unpleasant effects, for pleasing variety is due to the accidental 
effects produced by the attempt to express directly what is felt. 

It is possible to make artistic and inartistic drawings of any sub- 
ject which shall be equally true as far as the facts of form are 
concerned. Thus, two portraits of the same person may be equally 
correct as likenesses, and one be mechanical and unsatisfactory, 
while the other is artistic and pleasing in consequence of slight 
gradations and variations which produce an atmospheric and natural 
effect without changing the form. Students must realize that the 
vibrations of the atmosphere produce slightly irregular appearances 
in regular objects, but do not change the general impression of the 
lines and masses, and any variation from mechanical accuracy which 
causes false ideas of form must be avoided. 



Brushes. — Round sable brushes should be provided for study in 
water color if the best results are desired. These brushes are very 
expensive, as they cost from two to seven dollars each, but the art 
student cannot find a satisfactory substitute, and should have at least 
one large brush about ^ of an in. in diameter and i^^ inches long; its 
handle should be at least 9 inches long. The brush should have a 
fine point so that as fine a line can be drawn with the largest brush 
as with the smallest. Sable brushes are firm, elastic, and always 
keep their shape if they are carefully washed after using and brought 
to a point before they are laid aside. Camel's-hair brushes and 
brushes made in Japan are cheap and suitable for use in the public 

Bristle brushes are used by some for painting. They are also very 
valuable for washing off color and obtaining high lights, as they are 
stiff and will quickly remove the color ; a flat, short, and stiff brush 
should be used for this purpose. The sable brush should never be 
used for washing or obtaining lights, as this will soon spoil its point. 

Pigments. — The brush may be used with any pigment in making 
a water-color monochrome, but satisfactory results will be obtained 
only by the use of transparent colors. Bright colors such as red and 
orange may be used, but the first impression created by their use is 
generally that of the color instead of the subject of the picture, and 
the student is advised to use no bright color for monochrome work. 

The best results will be given by the use of sepia, neutral tint, or 
Payne's gray. These colors should be the moist colors prepared in 
pans or in tubes from which they may be squeezed into pans. 

India ink may be used, but this ink should be prepared by grind- 
ing a stick of ink, as the liquid inks contain chemicals which cause 
them to penetrate the paper so that changes are made with difficulty. 



India ink is not as desirable as the colors in pans, for the use of 
these gives better preparation for painting from nature in water 

Charcoal gray gives clear gray tones well adapted for reproduction, 
and is a desirable color when one is able to obtain effects directly ; 
but it is not suitable for students who must try many times to secure 
the effect, for the color is not absorbed by the paper, and is very apt 
to be removed or rendered spotty by the methods which students 
must employ to obtain truthful drawings. 

Paper. — Whatman's papers are best suited for water-color work ; 
of these the cold-pressed paper may be used, but the rougher papers 
intended for water-color work will generally give better results. 

Cheaper papers may be used if they are hard and have a rough 
surface which is not readily injured and which will stand washing 
with the brush or sponge. 

Making a Brush Drawing. 

The student who understands light and shade and is able to 
make a truthful, artistic drawing in charcoal or pencil requires little 
more than an explanation of the nature of any medium, and the most 
important facts regarding its preparation and its use, in order to be 
prepared to obtain by study that familiarity with the medium which 
will allow artistic work to be done. 

A brush drawing may be made in a great variety of ways. To 
explain the subject thoroughly would require a book instead of a few 
pages, so that only the most important points can be explained. 

The simplest use of the brush is that in which the point of the 
brush is used with color for the production of an outline drawing. 
In making such a drawing the outline would often be varied by 
the artist, as is illustrated by the sketch of the lion (Fig. 61) by 

Another simple effect readily produced by the brush is the sil- 
houette ; this often gives in an interesting way the beauty and variety 
of form seen in nature. 

A brush drawing may be done in flat tones representing the differ- 
ent values of the colors of the subject, as in the case of much of the 



poster work now done ; or the color values and also the details of form 
and color within these values may be given as in Japanese paintings. 

The brush is also used to produce more or less complete studies 
of form and values such as have been explained previously. 

The method explained in Chap. VI, by which sketches are made 
by representing shadows, cast shadows, and colors by the use of 
three or four tones, is well adapted to brush rendering upon dry 
paper, and subjects, such as Figs. 50, 54, and 56, are often repre- 

FiG. 61. From Sketch by Rembrandt. 

sented in this way with the brush. In fact any of the drawings done 
with the charcoal or pencil might have been rendered in the same 
way, so far as values are concerned, by the use of the brush. 

Two very distinct methods of working in water color with the 
brush are briefly explained as follows : 

The dry method. — In this the paper must be stretched by wetting 
it and then securing it to the board by means of mucilage, tacks, or 
in any other way. Instead of stretching the paper, many artists use 
water-color paper which has been stretched and prepared in the form 
of blocks. 


The paper is often secured to the board by means of a frame 
which is arranged to fit upon the edge of the board and to clamp the 
paper to it. In this case, to stretch paper it is only necessary to wet 
it and then to clamp it to the board by this frame. 

Some artists prefer to stretch the paper upon a stretcher, such as 
is used for a canvas in oil painting, securing the paper to the stretcher 
by means of tacks. When thus placed upon a stretcher^ both sides 
of the paper are exposed to the air so that the paper will dry much 
more quickly than when upon a board. Much valuable time is spent 
in waiting for washes to dry, and the use of a stretcher in this way 
is consequently helpful. 

When the paper has been stretched, some artists will suggest the 
form very lightly in outline with the pencil ; others will use the point 
of the brush and color to indicate the principal lines and propor- 
tions; sometimes the forms of the shadows may also be lightly 
indicated. Some artists may not consider it necessary to draw any 
outlines of the forms or shadows before beginning to represent the 
values by washes applied with the brush. Few students will, how- 
ever, be able to draw directly with the brush ; and since water colors 
are not easily changed when once they are placed upon the paper, 
students are advised to determine the form and principal lines very 
lightly with the pencil until able to draw well at first touch. In 
thus using the pencil or the brush, care must be taken not to make 
the touches strong enough to show when the drawing is finished, for 
in all work outlines must be avoided. 

When the drawing is thus suggested, the student may begin to 
wash in the values. A large brush should be used, and the color 
taken with it from the pan and mixed with water enough to produce 
the desired tint ; this should then be applied with a brush full of 
color. The wash should be quickly floated over the entire surface to 
be colored, in order that a clear tone may be produced. The wash 
should be moved with a regular motion of the brush, and should not 
be allowed to stand in one place longer than in another. It should 
not be allowed to dry within any part where an even value is desired, 
as where a wash dries it produces a water mark. The washes should 
be begun at the top with the paper slightly inclined so that the wash 
flows toward the bottom of the board. The side of the brush should 



be applied to the paper when large spaces are to be covered, and the 
point of the brush when small parts are worked upon or when careful 
drawing is required. 

The student should carry the first washes over as much of the sur- 
face of the paper as possible. The first wash, which must be very 
light, can generally be carried over the entire paper with the 

Fig. 62. From a Water-color Sepia Drawing. 

exception of the high lights. Before beginning with the washes, 
some artists go over the entire paper with clear water in order to 
dampen the paper so that the washes will not dry too quickly and 
produce water marks; but this is not necessary, as the first light 
wash will dampen the entire paper with the exception of the high 

When the first wash has dried, a second may be placed upon it, 
but if the second is applied while the paper is wet, the first will 
be at least partially removed. The second wash should be carried 
over as much of the paper as possible, and over the contours of 


all objects and parts which are seen against darker values; the 
wash should be varied to represent the gradation seen in the subject. 
The effect produced by these washes should be similar to the char- 
coal sketch (Fig. 2i'h)'> so f^ir as the masses of light and dark are con- 

All washes, even the first light one, should, when possible, be 
graded when applied, in order that they may represent as directly as 
possible the variety of effects seen. The washes should be prepared 
by taking the color from the pan with the brush and mixing it in the 
cover of the box with water enough to produce the desired tints ; 
but the tints should not be perfectly mixed before they are applied 
to the paper, for perfectly even tones will not produce the best 
results. For this reason, as far as possible, graded washes should 
be produced directly upon the paper by adding water when the wash 
is to be made lighter, and by adding color when it is to be made 
darker. The color to be added should be taken from the pan 
with the brush and applied directly to the part of the wash which is 
to be strengthened ; it will be taken up by the water of the wash and 
thus softened, and may be blended so as to produce any desired 
gradation and strength of color. When color is mixed in this way 
upon the paper, the tones are not perfectly even, and the variety 
thus produced gives a crispness and a charm to the work which can 
be obtained in no other way. 

The student should try to grade every wash applied so that the 
variety seen in nature is suggested ; but he will not be able to give all 
the values by the first washes ; and so when they are dry it will be 
necessary to strengthen some parts by going over them again, and 
possibly to lighten some parts by washing part of the color off. 

In order to avoid bringing washes in both directions up to any 
outline, the washes should always be carried over all outlines when- 
ever it is possible to do this. If the washes are not frequently 
carried over the outlines they will either overlap or not quite meet 
at the outlines, and in either case will dry and form water lines 
which outline the object and produce a hard, mechanical effect. 
It may be possible for artists to obtain pleasing effects by placing 
each value by one wash upon simply the part it represents. Draw- 
ings of this nature are most frequently seen done in color, but 

Fig. 63. From Water-color Sepia Study. 



the difficulties of producing artistic effects by this method alone are 
so great that students are advised not to attempt it. They should 
obtain effects by working over outlines as much as possible and by 
decreasing the size of the washes as their strength increases, until 
finally the accents of dark, which complete the drawing, are added. 

When a brush drawing is well started it will be well to give, in 
some small part, an accent of dark as strong as may be desired in 
the finished drawing, in order that as the drawing progresses the 
darks may be compared with this accent. In this way the values 
may be given so as to avoid making too light or too dark a study. 

If the color runs or is dropped upon parts where it is not desired, 
it may be removed by absorbing it with blotting paper or with a brush 
from which the color has been pressed. 

When the study is hard and crude as a result of unavoidable 
water lines, the paper should be dried and then thoroughly washed 
with clean water and a soft sponge or a brush. The grain of the 
paper should not be injured in doing this, and if little rolls of paper 
begin to form, they show that the washing process must stop if the 
paper is not to be spoiled. Washing in this way will greatly improve 
a hard drawing, and most satisfactory effects are sometimes produced 
by washing a drawing which is apparently in a hopeless condition. 

Some artists obtain their effects principally by use of the sponge 
and brush upon drawings intentionally made crude and hard, in 
order that they may be softened and brought together by washing. 
Students should know the value of this method, but they should aim 
to produce results directly, and should never work with the intention 
of producing false effects which are to be subjected to the action of 
accidental processes. 

Students should aim to produce an atmospheric effect by grading 
the washes as they are applied, and especially by grading them along 
the contours. A hard effect will be given by any drawing in which 
the washes are keen and sharp at the contours, or in which lines of 
light or of dark are formed by water lines or by washes which do not 
quite meet. 

The wet method. — This method is called the Dutch method 
because used by these painters, and it differs from the dry method 
in making use of paper which is kept wet until the finishing touches 


are applied. This avoids the crude effect given by the dry method 
when objects are sharply defined, or when washes dry and form 
water lines. 

The paper to be used is soaked in water, and also a piece of blot- 
ting paper as large as the paper, and the two are then placed 
together upon the drawing board, the blotting paper being under 
the water-color paper, and both are secured to the board by rubber 
bands encircling the board and placed upon the edges of the paper. 
The drawing is then made with the point of the brush, just enough 
water being used to moisten the brush and cause it to take up the 
color. When the principal forms are suggested in outline, the masses 
of dark are put in with the side of the brush, just enough water being 
used to cause the color to mix and to flow from the brush to the wet 
paper. The water upon the paper dilutes the color and causes it 
to flow evenly and produce tones which softly blend into each other. 
No tendency to hard outlines is produced, but, on the contrary, the 
effect of the drawing in its first stages is extremely blurred, for the 
different tones grade into each other and produce simply masses of 
light and dark with no separations or decided forms throughout the 
drawing. The paper being wet all the time, there is no danger that 
the color will dry and produce water lines, and as much time as is 
desired may be spent in studying the proportions and forms of the 
dark masses as they are put in. When the paper has been covered 
so as to suggest the effect of light and shadow, the darks should be 
strengthened by working more color into them with the brush. The 
color should be taken directly from the pan and worked into the dark 
masses throughout the drawing until the proper contrasts of light 
and dark are obtained. In thus strengthening the darks, if the 
color spreads into the lights it may be taken up with the blotter ; 
and the bristle brush may be used to lighten any parts which may 
be too dark. 

When the masses and the effect have been obtained as explained^ 
the paper should be allowed to dry so that if color is placed upon it 
with the brush full of color it will not run. The necessary decision 
and the accents should then be put in with washes which are 
allowed to dry without blending ; and the drawing should be finished 
by carefully drawing with the point of the brush any details of dark. 


needed, and by taking out with a stiff bristle brush any accents of 

This method gives softness, except where decision is produced by 
the finishing touches, and is an artistic method capable of producing 
the most beautiful effects. The method is at first difficult, particu- 
larly when colors are used ; if this method is not used by students, 
its principle should be applied as far as possible so as to cause the 
washes placed upon dry paper to blend and to soften into each other 
in all the first stages of any drawing. Decision and keenness are 
given only by the accents produced by the last work upon the 

The best method for the student who represents values seems to 
be a combination of both methods, the first work being done with 
the paper wet, and with color which is worked into the paper so 
that the different values throughout the drawing are represented 
by tones which softly grade into each other. When the masses 
are quite strongly indicated, the paper should be allowed to dry and 
the drawing finished as explained under the " dry method.'* 

Figs. 62, 63, 64, and 65 are students' drawings intended as studies 
of values, and made by combining both methods as explained above ; 
they show how the knowledge gained by still-life study in charcoal 
may be applied to more interesting subjects. 


The Pencil or the Brush. 

The question whether the public school pupil shall first study 
in outline, in light and shade, or in color is one upon which very 
different opinions are held. Some teachers claim that the pupil 
should begin with color ; others that he should begin with light and 
shade ; and others claim that his first study should be in outline. 

If pupils could start rightly and under the best conditions, it is 
not a matter of great importance whether pupils begin with out- 
line or with light and shade ; but it is generally impossible to secure 
the best conditions and the question really is what is advisable, 
considering the fact that most of the instruction is given by grade 
teachers, and is given under very poor conditions as to light and 

Outline is a medium which conventionally represents the least 
important features of a subject; light and shade effects are far 
more important than contours ; and color effects are more important 
than light and shade. But the question of the relative importance 
of the three is of little assistance in enabling us to decide how the 
pupil may make the most rapid advance, for he must be able to 
draw, and able to give values and also color effects, if he is to paint 
a picture ; and his training must not give undue attention in any 
one direction. 

It is also evident that it should not present the most difficult prob- 
lems to the youngest pupils. It is a question if work in light and 
shade would be more difficult for young pupils than work in outline, 
if the pupils could have, as instructor, an artist who was at the same 
time a trained teacher ; but as regards color, there can hardly be 
much difference of opinion. Probably most artists will say that 
they have personally seen color as it really appears only after having 
studied many years ; and often they will say that they have for the 


first time seen the delicate color distinctions, which are essential to 
the best work in color, after they have made their reputations as 

There can be no question that color is far more difficult to see 
than light and shade. Mediums for color study are very expensive 
and difficult to prepare and use, and thus color is not so suitable for 
the beginner. Even the artist is relieved when he works upon a 
subject where it is not absolutely essential for him to think of the 
form, light and shade, and color at the same time. 

We must decide, then, that the most important work of the pupil 
at first is to learn to draw ; and whether this shall be by work in 
outline or by study of light and shade depends upon the age of the 
pupil, and whether he is studying in a studio with an artist or in a 
schoolroom with a teacher who has had little time to devote to 
art work. 

It is possible that young pupils may be taught to see effects so 
that they may work with advantage in light and shade ; but for this 
to happen the pupils must have the best conditions as to light and 
instruction. At present there are few teachers not specialists in 
the public schools who have specially studied light and shade, and 
for this reason alone drawing in these schools should at first be 
in outline. 

It will be said that only teachers duly qualified should be employed ; 
but even if this were always done, there are other reasons why in the 
public schools it is better to begin with outline drawing. First is the 
fact that until pupils can draw contours with approximate truth, they 
cannot make light and shade drawings of any merit. Second, there 
is no sure and simple way by which pupils can learn to see values, 
while, as explained in "Free-Hand Drawing," they can teach them- 
selves to draw correctly. These facts lead us to decide that the 
first study in the public schools should be in outline. 

In the past much of the public school instruction in drawing has 
been such that artists and others informed upon art and art educa- 
tion have pronounced it mechanical and harmful. This has become 
generally known, and consequently we find that in all possible ways 
attempts are being made to improve instruction in drawing and to 
change public opinion concerning the nature of this work. 


The work done in the past has been principally in pencil outline ; 
hence the pencil is now discarded in favor of crayon, colored crayons, 
the brush, and pen and ink. Even the first instruction in some 
schools is with the brush, and sometimes brush-work is the principal 
instruction given through all the grades. As a result of such methods, 
we find on exhibition in some places drawings which to the public are 
much more interesting than the pencil outlines exhibited in former 
years, and pupils are much more interested in such work than in 
the work formerly done. There is no question that interest is in- 
creased by any and all work which suggests picture-making. But 
the interest of the pupil is not the only point to be considered ; if 
it were, we should not ask him to study spelling or arithmetic if he 
does not like these studies or shows more interest in manual train- 
ing, chemistry, or any other subject. The pupil's interest is desirable, 
but is it to be allowed to influence instruction in drawing more than 
it does instruction in other subjects ? Good instruction will create 
interest, and yet interest is not proof of good instruction ; for methods 
which make the pupil's work or the teacher's work easy will often 
be popular, and the more harmful these methods are, the more interest 
they will often create. 

The popular interest in light and shade, in crayon drawing, in 
colored crayons, in brush work, in painting, and in pen and ink 
in the lower grades of the public schools is largely due to the reac- 
tion from the mechanical work of outline drawing mechanically taught, 
and is often not based on sound principles or sound instruction. The 
pupil who receives instruction not based upon sound art principles 
will be no better off than the one who formerly was taught to make 
mechanical free-hand drawings. There will, however, be a great 
difference in the cost, for while instruction in pencil drawing is 
inexpensive as far as materials are concerned, the instruction which 
allows the pupil to think that he can paint before he can draw will 
cost many times as much for materials as that formerly provided. 

The public should understand that to give a boy a paint-box does 
not make him an artist, or give him the power to draw any more 
truthfully than he can draw with the lead pencil. Public school 
graduates have generally been unable to draw with any degree of 
facility, or even accuracy, the simplest objects about them, and 


consequently the public demands that some change in drawing be 
made. This demand is now met in some places by putting into the 
hands of the pupil a brush instead of a pencil. With this brush the 
pupil makes drawings which are freer than the outline drawings he 
formerly made ; but are they any truer, any more like the objects 
studied, and will this training enable the pupil to draw correctly? 
With the brush the pupil draws leaves, flowers, vegetables, etc. 
These subjects are such that they are recognized if the drawings 
are far from correct ; the handling of the brush produces variety 
and accidental effects which are often pleasing and artistic, so 
that to the casual observer, who cannot compare the drawings with 
the objects, it may seem as if the work was a great advance over 
the simple outline work previously done. But ask the pupil who 
has used the brush exclusively, or even largely, through all the 
grades, to draw a chair or a corner of a room or a landscape, 
and he will in many cases draw no better than he formerly did. 

The remedy for poor drawing is not to be found in a change of 
mediums. If instruction in drawing is based upon good methods, 
the pencil or the brush or any other medium can be used, and the 
student will learn to draw ; but until he studies the appearances of 
nature, and not simply the handling of any medium, he will never 
draw any better than he has drawn with the instruction of the past, 
which has taught him to use a pencil mechanically. 

I do not mean to say that in many places good may not result 
from the present movement in favor of other mediums than the pen- 
cil, but this will come principally when directors of drawing base 
their efforts on the serious study of nature and on the careful com- 
parison and correction of all work, until the eye has learned to see 
truly enough to allow the hand to express form rapidly. 

The pupil who has not learned to draw quite truthfully by the 
use of the pencil, or some other medium, which permits frequent 
changes, will only waste time and money by taking up work with 
the brush and India ink, or work in color ; and teachers are earnestly 
advised not to allow pupils to attempt this work until they can draw 
fairly well in outline. 

If proper instruction in the lower grades is given in pencil outline, 
pupils will be interested, and they will learn to draw before they 



enter the higher grammar grades, so that in these grades it will be 
possible to begin the use of the brush and other mediums more 
difficult than the pencil. The first subjects for brush instruction 
should be foliage, vegetables, etc., for errors in drawing will not 
appear at first glance in this work; but the brush should not be 
used until pupils can avoid the most serious errors of drawing. 

Pupils may receive good instruction in outline and light and shade 
and study exclusively or largely with the brush, but they will gain 
nothing by so doing. On the contrary, they will lose ; for to learn to 
draw is a difficult problem if made as simple as possible, and the 
brush makes it much more difficult than other mediums the pupil 
may use, with far less expenditure of time and money. The pencil 
is cleaner than any other medium and more durable ; it is equally 
well adapted for the slightest sketch or for the most careful study, 
and it allows changes to be made much more readily than most 
other mediums. It is at the same time the cheapest medium, the 
most educational, and the best in all ways ; and far from being 
childish or mechanical, it is, and has been, a favorite medium of 
nearly all great artists. 

The pencil is adapted, not only for the first work in the public 
schools, but for the use of all art students ; and when students have 
the advantages of a studio and an artist as teacher, they should use 
the pencil part of the time, even if they begin with the study of 
light and shade in charcoal, for it is necessary to study form as 
well as values. To whichever subject the student first gives his 
attention, he should change for a time, and make the other of first 

Charcoal is better adapted for the study of values than any other 
medium, for changes in the values of the charcoal drawing may be 
made most readily. The pencil is better adapted to the study of 
form than the charcoal, for it has a fine, durable point, and with 
it the faintest touches may be made ; so that it is possible to 
change a drawing many times without any use of the eraser, by 
gradually strengthening the touches. Making a drawing in this way, 
without the use of the eraser, until the correct lines have been found, 
gives the best drill in drawing, and is the only artistic method ; and 
teachers of private classes and of art-school students should depend 


upon their judgment as to whether their pupils shall study values 
first with the charcoal, or form first with the lead pencil. 

First Work in Light and Shade. 

Having shown the different methods in which the pencil may be 
used in light and shade work, we will now consider what public 
school pupils in the lower grades may do, bearing in mind the facts 
that the drawing instruction must generally be given by teachers 
who have had little chance to study art, and that the lessons must 
be given in regular classrooms, with the conditions as to light, models, 
etc., very unsatisfactory. 

Light and shade drawings are often made by copying or by dicta- 
tion methods ; but such work should never be permitted, and when 
teachers are not able to explain principles, or to make or criticise 
light and shade studies from nature, students should not attempt 
light and shade work. 

The subject of light and shade is not so difficult that teachers who 
wish to give elementary instruction in it cannot, after a little study, 
qualify themselves to direct the work, for pupils will readily see 
shadows and cast shadows upon common objects, vegetables, foli- 
age, etc. ; and teachers may so direct pupils that when such subjects 
are drawn, effects similar to Figs. 46, 47, and 48 may be produced. 

All teachers will be able to show that objects have light surfaces 
and shadow surfaces, and throw cast shadows. Most pupils will 
readily see these effects, and with but little explanation will be able 
to make from nature drawings similar to Figs. 50 and 54. 

Pupils who do not see these effects will be assisted to do so if the 
teacher places in front of a cylinder, at least a foot in diameter and 
exposed to a side light, a sheet of paper in which a hole is cut so 
that through it the pupils may see part of the light surface and part 
of the shadow surface, but not the contours or enough of the cylinder 
to recognize it. The pupils should not be allowed to see the cylin- 
der before the paper is placed in front of it. This experiment may 
readily be made by rolling up a sheet of white paper and tying it 
together at its ends to form the cylinder, and placing it in position 
when the pupils are out of the room. It should be so situated that 


the pupils can see it only through the hole cut in the paper placed 
in front of it. There are few pupils who will not see the light and 
dark upon the cylinder when it is thus situated, and after they have 
done this, the paper in front of the cylinder may be removed, and 
they will then realize that the light and dark was really upon one 
white object, and due wholly to light and shade. Pupils who can 
see these effects of light and shade will readily represent them by 
simple masses, and may thus begin their study of nature's lights and 

When work more advanced than this is desired, it will be well to 
study the cube, or a similar object, as follows : 

First place the cube in a side light producing an effect similar to 
that of the plinth in Fig. 8, and have the pupils represent the effect 
as in Fig. 49. Next place the cube with the light in front of the 
pupils so that the effect is similar to that of the plinth in Fig. 1 1 . 
The pupils will represent the cast shadow and the two vertical 
shadow surfaces by dark tones, and the top of the cube by an 
outline. Next place the cube so that the light comes from behind 
the pupils, and so that the effect is similar to that of the plinth in 
Fig. TO, and ask the pupils to make a light and shade drawing of the 
cube. The pupils have been accustomed to represent the cast shadow 
and the shadow surfaces by dark tones which have produced the 
effect of the drawings. But now the effect of the subject is entirely 
light, and cannot be represented by shading any surface of the object 
as the pupils have been in the habit of doing. This effect will show 
the pupils that it is often necessary to use a background, and this 
may now be represented so that the cube comes out light against it 
as the object does against its background in nature. 

The cube should now be placed in different positions and with dif- 
ferent backgrounds, so that its shadow surface appears first darker 
and then lighter than the background, and the pupils should be asked 
to represent the value of the background as well as that of the 
shadow and cast shadow. Drawings such as Fig. 51 will result. 

It is now time to ask the pupils to observe that the light faces are 
not equally light, and the sphere should be studied to show the gra- 
dation that there is in the masses both of light and of shadow. The 
pupils should make a careful study of the sphere from the object, 


and should give all the gradations that can be seen. After this they 
may study a colored object and a white object at the same time. In 
their work from this time on they should represent a background or 
not, according to the nature of the subject. They should understand 
that a dark object seen against a light background, or any object 
which appears darker than its background, may be effectively ren- 
dered without a background ; but when any object appears lighter 
than its background, in whole or in part, a sketch true in values can- 
not be made without the use of a background. If pupils are taught 
to observe nature, and understand that their sketches should be 
truthful representations of what they see, they will be interested in 
the work, and will make rapid progress. 

The artistic method of making these pencil sketches is to suggest 
the proportions of the drawing and its principal masses by lightly 
indicating the principal shadows and cast shadows, and then strength- 
ening them so as to obtain drawing and values at the same time, as 
explained in Chap. V. Public school pupils will not be able, how- 
ever, to draw well enough to work in this way at first, and they will 
be obliged to indicate the outlines of the objects before beginning 
the shading. If in obtaining correct form the outlines become 
strong, the eraser should be used to make them very faint before 
the drawing is shaded. When possible no shadow or edge should 
be defined in a finished drawing by an outline ; and whenever a 
background is used the forms may always be shown by the values 

Perfectly accurate geometric solids are not the best subjects for 
this work, as it is difiicult to represent the facts of their form in a 
drawing artistically handled, and a subject such as Fig. 54 is far 
preferable to the cube of Fig. 49. The type solids should, however, 
be studied first, and sketches similar to Fig. 52 are advisable, as they 
show at the same time the student's capacity for drawing truly and 
for rendering light and shade effects. 

At first pupils should be allowed to work slowly and carefully in 
order that the shading may not extend beyond the outlines ; and 
no directicHis- should be given restricting them to shading by means 
of lines or by means of strokes in any special direction. They should 
use a soft pencil, having a wide point, so as to produce even tones 


in any way that occurs to them, and should at first think only of 
the values and the forms of these tones. 

After the students have worked for some time representing the 
darks by tones secured by whatever use of the pencil is natural to 
them, they will work more freely and directly, and they may then be 
asked to produce shading by moving the pencil back and forth in 
the direction of the surface to be shaded, so as to obtain the shading 
by means of lines whose direction helps to express the surface. Thus 
on the foreground the strokes of the pencil maybe about horizontal, 
and upon the background they may be vertical or inclined a little 
from the vertical. The pencil strokes that form the shading upon 
any object may have such a direction that they help to express the 
form of the object ; but it will not be possible to formulate rules for 
determining the direction of the pencil lines used in shading, for 
there must always be variety, and the principal directions must be 
contrasted by lines having other directions. It will not do for the 
lines of shading always to be vertical upon vertical surfaces, or hori- 
zontal upon horizontal surfaces, or oblique upon oblique surfaces, 
or to follow the exact curvature of curved surfaces ; but the pupil 
will be assisted by remembering that such directions will often pro- 
duce the most satisfactory results. The effect will be most satisfac- 
tory when the shading follows these general directions, and is varied 
by other lines which keep the effect from becoming monotonous. 

Pupils in the lower grades do not draw freely enough to profit by 
devoting much attention to the direction and kind of lines by which 
the shading is obtained. Until pupils can draw quite freely and 
give the masses of light and shade readily, it will only be necessary 
to see that they use the side of a soft pencil so as to produce even 
tones of shade ; and also to see that they do not use its point, or a 
sharp or hard pencil, so as to produce fine lines either when shad- 
ing or when drawing the contour of any object. 

The help to be derived from the most suitable direction of the 
pencil lines, or rather tints by which the shading is given, is men- 
tioned in order that teachers may understand that rules for handling 
cannot be given, and that the only point which should decide satis- 
factory technique is whether it gives a pleasing and true impression 
of the object represented. 


To be satisfactory, pencil work must be free and must be varied, — 
just how is a question which can only be decided by each pupil 
through his own efforts; and the individuality of each will express 
itself, so that among sketches by half a dozen different persons there 
may be no two sketches which are alike in handling. Study from 
nature and the comparison of his work with that of artists will 
enable the student to gain an interesting technique with the pencil 
or with any other medium. 

It will be possible to study very simple light and shade effects in 
a common schoolroom, the object being placed near the window. 
But to make at all finished studies it will be necessary to have a good 
light. When rooms are situated so that groups cannot be arranged 
to receive light from one window, it will be necessary to make 
special arrangements. A group may be arranged upon a drawing 
board placed upon a stool in front of a window. If sunlight enters 
the window it should be curtained by white cloth. A board may be 
placed behind the group to serve as a background. If light comes 
from the opposite side of the room, it should be shut off by placing 
a second drawing board vertically at the side of the group. 

To obtain in such ways the proper conditions requires much time 
and preparation ; but this is necessary if the subject is to be 
attempted when suitable rooms are not provided. 

Pupils who have used the pencil for light and shade work may 
use the brush for this purpose. In the upper grades pupils who can 
give light and shade effects with the brush may sometimes be able 
to study from still life with water colors. Such pupils may also use 
pen and ink, but this medium should not be used when pupils are 
not able to make good light and shade drawings with the pencil. 
No work in drawing should be allowed in the drawing hour of 
such a nature that pupils cannot by study discover their errors, or 
of such a nature that the teacher cannot criticise the drawing. 
Progress is not made by attempting difficult subjects or the tech- 
nique of the artist. Progress comes only from work upon drawings 
whose errors the pupils can largely discover themselves, and which 
beyond this point can be criticised by the teacher. 

As in all teaching, the great trouble in public school work has been, 
and is, that students wish to study subjects too difficult for them ; 


they wish to make light and shade drawings and to paint before they 
can draw in outline ; they wish to draw the human figure before they 
can draw a cube. Often teachers allow pupils to spend their time in 
attempting the advanced when they cannot represent the simple sub- 
jects. Thus, in the public schools, pupils often make illustrative 
drawings from imagination, depicting subjects that would require the 
skill of a trained illustrator to draw with any degree of truth. Such 
work interests the pupils and trains the intellect, and is valuable in 
this way, but it cannot train the eye to see. It is not properly the 
study of drawing, and should not be permitted to take the place of 
that study of nature and that criticism of all drawings which dis- 
covers their errors, for advance is impossible except by discovery of 
error. The teaching which is based upon the idea that criticism of 
drawings will discourage the pupil, and that if allowed to work with- 
out criticism he will in time outgrow his errors and draw correctly, 
will result in the loss of much valuable time and effort. 

Art students who realize the difficulty of success as artists will do 
well to consider the problem of teaching drawing in the public 
schools, for by giving part of their time to this teaching they can 
support themselves, so that they can paint from love of art. To 
teach drawing well is not a low aim, and if advanced art students 
should fit themselves for teaching by normal study, they would often 
benefit themselves while elevating drawing instruction. 

School committees would assist in improving drawing instruction 
if in selecting teachers of drawing they acted on the principle that 
the best teacher is, other things being equal, the one who can draw 
and paint the best. It should be understood that the art teacher 
can never become perfect in his profession, but must always be 
studying and growing in artistic power. 

If the best results are desired, the director or special teacher of 
drawing should have at least two days each week in which to study, 
to draw, or to paint. Drawing teachers are often expected and 
feel compelled to prepare papers and materials for teachers and 
classes, so that all their time out of school is occupied in work which 
amounts to the making of text-books and copies for teachers and 
pupils. There is no more reason why the drawing teacher should 
be expected to make such copies than there is why the music teacher 


should be expected to prepare music charts. Drawing teachers 
should not be obliged to do such work. The work they do in school 
is far more trying and difficult than any other teaching, and instead 
of working all the time, in school and out, they should do justice to 
themselves and their pupils by studying nature part of the time. 
In no other way can this most difficult subject of instruction be 
properly presented. Committees should also understand that no 
system of drawing instruction can be devised which will dispense 
with the special teacher, or which can succeed without a competent 
specialist to instruct and direct the regular teachers. 


The person who wishes to study art should realize that it is a 
profession in which nothing of artistic value can be produced with- 
out patient study and serious and long-continued effort. The life 
of the artist is one of never-ceasing work. To it he must bring the 
enthusiasm of youth, the strength of manhood, and all the energies 
of his soul ; for his problem is not the representation of the exterior 
alone, but the study of the soul — the soul of nature. The most 
talented men fail to solve the mysteries of nature, and the problems 
of the artist can no more easily be solved in a few years, or in even 
a lifetime. He must always be a student, and by study advance day 
by day, if he does not wish to go backward. This is true, not only 
of the work which distinguishes art from industry, but of the mechan- 
ical phases of his work, and students should not begin the study of 
art without serious consideration of all that it involves. 

Many begin the study of art with no definite purpose, or with 
simply the aim to acquire slight general knowledge. Of course, it 
is desirable that art should be a subject of general study, and that 
all schools should give art instruction suited to their pupils. Noth- 
ing will do more to advance a people than the study of art, and the 
love for art and nature which it will produce ; but those who study 
should have a definite result in view, and one which is possible for 
them to attain. 

Advice is needed by those who spend time and money on teachers 
ignorant of art, and whose methods consist simply of allowing pupils 
to think that they are studying painting while making copies which 
are worked upon by the teacher, so that, as a result of a few lessons, 
oil paintings are produced, which are taken home for framing. The 
public should understand that no one can produce work fit for exhi- 
bition without long study ; and that no teacher is giving good instruc- 
tion when he works long upon his pupil's drawings. No teacher 
should allow pupils to think their first work more satisfactory or 



more artistic than are the finger exercises which the music pupil 
finds necessary. 

A few years ago the word " chromo " suggested the worst in art, 
but now it is possible to obtain chromos which are in every way 
much more satisfactory and desirable than many original oil paint- 
ings ; for the processes of reproduction have been so perfected that 
one not well informed on art matters cannot distinguish the difference 
between an original picture worth hundreds of dollars and its repro- 
duction worth a few cents, or, at the most, a few dollars. A good 
reproduction of the best art is much more to be desired than an 
original painting which is inartistic. The percentage of good paint- 
ings is very small, and pride should not be taken in a picture simply 
because it is the original. The persons who take lessons with the 
idea that from the very first each study is to be used for decoration, 
not only unwisely spend their money, — for the same amount would 
provide the best art in photographs or color productions, — but they 
acquire the most harmful ideas ; and students who wish to study 
drawing are advised to go to the best schools only or to artists of 

Before studying art with a view to making it a profession or a 
source of income, the experience of those engaged in art profes- 
sionally should be considered, and, if possible, the advice of some 
well-known artist should be obtained. If the honest opinion of a 
strong painter could always be obtained, many who begin the study 
of art without the ability required to win success might be advised 
to their great advantage to enter other fields. The chances of suc- 
cess, either financially or artistically, in art are very small, and the 
art student should realize this before beginning the long and expen- 
sive course of training which many students go through before they 
realize that they have no talent for art, or that they cannot make 
a living by it. 

" There is always room at the top," and the few great artists win 
fame and money; but if one will study the history of the past, he 
will discover that there are few great painters, and that at any time 
the number of artists whose work will stand the test of time and 
hand their names down to coming generations is very small. At 
the present time there are few painters who make a good income 


from simply the sale of artistic paintings. There are, however, many 
good painters who do not sell one picture a year, and who live by 
illustrating, teaching, designing, or by other work, which is a neces- 
sity and not a choice, and which prevents them from doing in art the 
best work of which they are capable. 

If art students would ask teachers whom they respect and whose 
work may often be widely known, they would find that oftentimes 
these teachers could not live by the sale of their paintings ; and if, 
investigating further, they discover that even the painters whose 
work occupies the best places at the leading exhibitions often sell 
comparatively few pictures, they might wisely decide to enter some 
other profession. 

The student who considers these facts will realize that if he tries 
for the best in art the chances are that he will have a small and 
uncertain income, and that he will gain success, if at all, only after 
many years of hardship; and that for one who finally succeeds in 
making money by the sale of really good pictures there are a hun- 
dred who try and fail. These failures are no doubt often due to the 
fact that the work is not artistically great ; but it is very discouraging 
to the artist who tries to be serious and to produce good work — 
and who succeeds in a measure — to witness the financial success 
of many who are not serious, who are not students of nature or even 
clever painters. 

Financial success is gained in many different ways ; most rare is 
that due to inspiration, — to the genius which produces great art. 
This genius is generally recognized and rewarded whenever great 
work is produced, though many of the painters now accorded great- 
ness lived a large part of their lives in almost poverty. Financial 
success is, however, frequently due, not to artistic merit, but to busi- 
ness ability or social influence. It is also due to the effort to suit 
the public and to paint its ideals, or, in other words, to paint what 
uneducated eyes see instead of good art and the truth concerning 
nature. This is especially true regarding landscape art. In figure 
work it is easier to appreciate the best art, but often in this line the 
work which is hard, mechanical, and most like a sharp photograph 
is that which is sought for, and the inartistic painter is often most 
successful financiallv. 


To make money it is not necessary to study art seriously or to 
attempt to represent nature's effects of color, or even those of light 
and shade, for the picture which sells is too often the one which 
mechanically presents a pleasing subject truthfully as far as form 
is concerned, but which entirely disregards the appearance as far 
as light and shade and color effects are concerned. 

It is very doubtful if areally great picture has ever been produced 
by a painter whose sole ambition has been to make money. Art is 
due to a love for beauty which makes the artist desire to produce 
the very best, which causes him to have no other aim ; which leads 
him to go to nature for inspiration and to study her patiently and 
seriously, to work early and late, to endure poverty and hardship, and 
to allow nothing to interfere with the communion of his soul with 
the soul of nature, wherein lies at once his chief pleasure and his 
education. This love for nature and for beauty will produce the 
great art which is recognized, and which in time brings fame and 
money to the few who are geniuses. But great genius is very rare, 
and most who think they possess it will fail to realize their expecta- 
tions ; and though they may produce really good and serious work 
it is not the best, and not sought by the few who appreciate the 
best art. 

The art student should understand these facts, and in the begin- 
ning decide either to work for love of nature and of the best art, or 
to make a business of art. Before deciding for the former he should 
carefully study the experiences of the few who are artistically great 
and note how many years they studied before they obtained success, 
and how hard they work even at the height of their success to satisfy 
themselves. If students only realized that the master whose work 
they admire so much very likely painted a dozen or even more times 
the head or hand which seems so hastily done with broad and care- 
less strokes, before the final satisfactory result was secured, they 
would begin to appreciate the difficulties of the artist and to consider 
more seriously the problem before them. Students should realize 
that greatness is due to inspiration or genius, but that genius in the 
case of the painter must be combined with the faculty for hard work. 
Some work longer than others to accomplish the same results, but 
the history of art records none who have painted masterpieces while 


they have been mere children. Children not in their teens astonish 
the world by their genius in music ; it certainly is not due to work 
or study when the most difficult masterpieces and beautiful compo- 
sitions are perfectly executed without thought or study by the genius 
of the child. But the language of the painter is more difficult even 
for the inspiration of the genius, who must work long and most seri- 
ously to acquire the manual skill and dexterity which will permit his 
genius to express itself. The earlier the serious art student realizes 
this and begins to study nature patiently, the greater his chances 
of success.^ 

If the student decides that financial success is his aim, he will 
most easily and surely obtain it by making social affairs and busi- 
ness methods his chief concern. He should study artists and their 
work to discover the taste of the public, and when he has decided 
what sells best he should paint in like manner. 

People may assert that all are created free and equal, but the 
student of nature cannot agree with this statement, for he discovers 
that through all the lower and through all the higher forms of life 
nature gives unequal powers. As for men, no two are alike in every 
respect. The student of nature is lost before her mysteries, and 
with awe and reverence he contemplates the mighty intelligence, — 
the God who rules and directs all things. He soon is compelled to 
admit that nothing is by chance, that law regulates all things, 
produces all life, and arranges even the simplest details of all life, 
so that from the planets down to man and his most insignificant 

1 " Until a few years ago Chavannes never sold a picture. Millet lived his life 
in penury and obscurity. But thirty years of persistent ridicule having failed to 
destroy Degas' genius, some recognition has been extended to it. The fate of 
all great artists in the nineteenth century is a score of years of neglect and obloquy. 
They may hardly hope for recognition before they are fifty ; some few cases point 
the other way, but very few. The rule is thirty years of neglect and obloquy, then 
a flag of truce will be held out to the recalcitrant artist who cannot be prevented 
from painting beautiful pictures : * Come, let us be friends ; let 's kiss and make 
it up ; send a picture to the academy ; we '11 hang it on the line and make you an 
academician the first vacancy that occurs.' To-day the academy would like to 
get Mr. Whistler, but Mr. Whistler replies to the academy as Degas replied to the 
government official who wanted a picture for the Luxembourg: *Non, je ne veux 
pas etre conduit au poste par les sergents de ville d'arts.' " — From " Modern 
Painting," by George Moore. 


surroundings, all events are designed to accomplish the will of the 
Creator of the universe. It is in accordance with God's laws that 
men possess such different qualities, powers, and passions that no 
one can justly judge another, and so in art, as in other things, it is 
true that each must fulfill his mission. The art student may choose 
low or high ideals and then can do his best to realize them, but the 
student who has the highest ideals need not expect to realize them 
in a short time or without a struggle. 

We may agree with these statements or not, but the fact remains 
that the art student who has his own living to earn has a most diffi- 
cult problem before him, which in many cases he is never able to 
settle to his own satisfaction. This is often due to the fact that 
students begin the study of art without consideration of the facts 
which have been discussed, and often when without even average 
ability for drawing. Sometimes graduates of high and advanced 
schools have not had any training in drawing and do not know as 
much of drawing as a grammar-school student ought to know. I have 
met students who have entered art schools without ever having had 
a lesson in drawing or ever having tried to draw. Almost any one 
can learn to draw and in time to paint a picture which is a fair 
representation of appearances ; but the average ability which enables 
one to do this is not enough to warrant one in taking up art as a 
profession, and no one should do this who has not studied long 
enough to prove himself the possessor of much more than average 

The difficulty of earning a living as an artist, illustrator, or designer 
is far greater now than a few years ago, for then there were few 
artists and draughtsmen, and the standard of work was far below what 
it is now. Then it was possible for one with average ability to study 
for a short time and secure a good income for work which now could 
not be disposed of at all. A few years ago it was difficult to obtain 
teachers of drawing, and any one who desired to teach had little 
difficulty in obtaining a position after having studied for a short time 
in the schools of New York or Boston. So great was the demand for 
teachers of drawing in the public schools that many students obtained 
important positions after not more than a year of study, and some- 
times even less time was spent in securing a certificate which stated 


that its holder was qualified to teach art. Such certificates may have 
enabled their possessors to obtain positions, , but they could not 
enable them to teach what can only be acquired by years of study 
and experience, and much of the bad instruction in drawing has been 
due to the methods which allowed students who were just beginning 
to study drawing to receive diplomas stating that they were qualified 
to teach art. 

The student of art at present must realize that all this is changed, 
and that now trained draughtsmen and even the best artists are com- 
peting for the work which a few years ago the art student found to 
do, and the position of teacher in any academy or private school is 
eagerly sought by artists who have generally studied abroad many 

The teacher of drawing in the public schools requires training 
which the artist seldom obtains. This normal training is obtained 
at normal and normal art schools, and at present there are many 
first-class teachers of experience who have studied in art and normal 
art schools from four to six years, and often longer, who are waiting 
for a chance to teach drawing in the public schools. In the future 
it will not be possible for art students to support themselves after a 
year or two of study, for the positions will be obtained only by the 
very best and those with talent or influence. So the student must 
realize that whether his aim is to teach or to practice art, he should 
not enter an art school until he has shown that he has unusual 
artistic talent. 

It is not necessary for a student to enter a school or to study with 
a teacher to discover whether he has talent or not. If he has ability 
he will be fond of art and of drawing, and he will draw and prove 
his talent, or at least his taste, for art, and he may by his own efforts 
acquire enough skill to prove the question of talent. The student 
who cannot take a few lessons at a good art school or with a good 
artist should study the art magazines which reproduce artists' 
drawings, and which give directions by artists and good teachers 
for art study ; and he should study particularly the reproductions 
of the drawings and studies by the old masters, for they give the 
best possible material for study and inspiration. He should take 
these drawings, not as copies, but to show how to work and study 



from nature. Any student who will draw from nature with such 
material to enthuse and suggest ways of working will not go astray, 
and will often be better off than if with a poor teacher or at a poor 
art school. The student who studies in this way at home may in a 
few years be far in advance of those who have studied an equal time 
under poor instruction. 

This is possible because methods of work are often allowed to 
occupy the attention of art school students, so that their aim is not 
artistic, but mechanical, and it is possible for students to study many 
years in even noted art schools without obtaining the first idea of 
what art is or how they ought to work to secure artistic results. In 
the book " Modern Painting," which all art students ought to study, 
Mr. George Moore speaks of the not^d English school at South 
Kensington as follows : 

" Five and twenty years ago the schools of art at South Kensing- 
ton were the most comical in the world ; they were the most complete 
parody on the continental school of art possible to imagine. They 
are no doubt the same to-day as they were five and twenty years ago; 
any way, the educational result is the same. The schools as I 
remember them were faultless in everything except the instruction 
dispensed there. There were noble staircases, the floors were cov- 
ered with cocoanut matting, the rooms admirably heated with hot- 
water pipes, there were plaster casts, and officials. In the first room 
the students practiced drawing from the flat. Engraved outlines of 
elaborate ornamentation were given them, and these they drew with 
lead pencils, measuring the spaces carefully with compasses. In 
about six months or a year the student had learned to use his com- 
passes correctly, and to produce a fine, hard, black-lead outline ; the 
harder and finer the outline, the more the drawing looked like a 
problem in a book of Euclid, the better the examiner was pleased, 
and the more willing was he to send the student to the room upstairs, 
where drawing was practiced from the antique. 

" This was the room in which the wisdom of South Kensington 
attained a complete efflorescence. I shall never forget the scenes I 
witnessed there. Having made choice of a cast, the student pro- 
ceeded to measure the number of heads ; he then measured the cast 
in every direction, and ascertained by means of a plumb line exactly 


where the lines fell. It was more like land surveying than drawing, 
and to accomplish this portion of his task took generally a fortnight, 
working six hours a week. He then placed a sheet of tissue paper 
upon his drawing, leaving only one small part uncovered, and, having 
reduced his chalk pencil to the finest possible point, he proceeded to 
lay in a set of extremely fine lines. These were crossed by a second 
set of lines, and the two sets of lines were elaborately stippled, every 
black spot being carefully picked out with bread. With a patience 
truly sublime in its folly, he continued the process all the way down 
the figure, accomplishing, if he were truly industrious, about an inch 
square in the course of an evening. Our admiration was generally 
directed to those who had spent the longest time on their drawings. 
After three months* work a student began to be noticed ; at the end 
of four he became an important personage. I remember one who 
had contrived to spend six months on his drawing. He was a sort 
of demigod, and we used to watch him, anxious and alarmed lest he 
might not have the genius to devote still another month to it; and 
our enthusiasm knew no bounds when we learned that, a week before 
the drawings had to be sent in, he had taken his drawing home and 
spent three whole days stippling it and picking out the black spots 
with bread. 

" The poor drawing had neither character nor consistency ; it 
looked like nothing under the sun, except a drawing done at Ken- 
sington, — a fiat, foolish thing, but very soft and smooth. But this 
was enough ; it was passed by the examiners, and the student went 
into the Life Room to copy an Italian model as he had copied the 
Apollo Belvedere." 

Similar censure has been deserved by other schools, and the stu- 
dent who is unable to study in an art school may console himself 
with the thought that he might waste much time if not fortunate 
enough to enter one of the right kind; and every student should 
understand, whether he studies at home or not, that he is and must 
be his own best teacher, and that if he has any ability or capacity for 
art he can develop it sufficiently by home study to know whether it 
will be wise for him to make art his life work. If he has not ability 
which will make itself evident by home study, no amount of study 
with teachers or in art schools will enable him to obtain results of 


value, and art students ought to realize that their teachers can at 
best do but little for them. The best teacher cannot give the correct 
eye for drawing, the capacity to see color, or the feeling for beauty 
which the artist must have; and as a matter of fact, many of the 
greatest artists have been largely self-taught. 

The student who desires to make art his profession must decide 
how to continue his studies. This is a perplexing question, for Mr. 
A will tell him to go abroad at once, and that there is no other way 
to study; while Mr. B will tell him to study in the schools of America 
for a few years and then go abroad; and Mr. C may tell him that it 
is not necessary to go abroad at all. The advice to go abroad at 
once is, however, so generally given that many students start for 
Paris, for instance, before they know anything concerning student 
life in that city, and often without knowledge of French and without 
having studied in the art schools of America. The student should 
realize that schools of art, like those for other specialties, will vary. 
Standards may be higher in one country than in another, but in most 
countries there will be good and poor schools. Schools of art are 
very much alike the world over, for they all deal with the grammar 
of art first, and as a matter of fact, in few schools will the student go 
far beyond this elementary study. This is due to the fact that art 
must come from within, — that it cannot be taught, and is due to the 
development of the perceptions and the soul, which is a matter of 
slow and individual growth. The student may study its grammar of 
form, light and shade, and color under practically the same condi- 
tions in the best schools of any country, and the chances are that he 
will make the best progress the first few years in the schools of his 
own country, for in them he is at home, and under none of the dis- 
advantages of one in a foreign country. The American art student 
is advised to study in America until he can draw and paint fairly 
well, for he is more likely to obtain a sound foundation and artistic 
instruction, giving better results in all ways, in the first few years of 
art-school life here than abroad. 

The principal value of study in Europe is due to the opportunity it 
gives to study with fellow-students who are really strong artists, and 
also to the inspiration of the galleries which exhibit the masterpieces 
of the world. But students who have not studied several years are 


not able to profit by these advantages as are those with more experi- 
ence, and consequently many student3 go abroad and study for several 
years, and return to America not knowing what they ought to have 
known before going abroad to profit by their study. The student is, 
then, advised to study in an art school at home for three or four years 
and then to go abroad for as long a period as he can, for there he is 
under the influences of the best art of the world and away from the 
petty jealousies and distractions of a business and inartistic atmos- 
phere, which makes the best work more difficult in America than in 

Many students begin the study of art who have not the money 
required for continuous study during several years. It is difficult to 
advise such students, for some may be situated so that they can sup- 
port themselves while studying, and others cannot do this. Generally 
it will be difficult to study profitably if the mind cannot be wholly given 
to study, and it will be better for the student to work until he can 
study for a few years; while doing this he will have holidays and 
evenings in which to study, and in this time he may improve in draw- 
ing, if he cannot obtain the best results in art from a brain which is 
tired with other affairs. The student who has ability has the oppor- 
tunity to compete for the scholarships given for foreign study, and 
often in this way he may continue his education. 

But the art student with all other students should realize that 
nature is the great and only perfect teacher, and that success in any 
permanent form comes only from the free and honest expression of 
one's own individuality. In all directions the tendency is not to be 
honest and original, but to copy some other person, and it is too 
generally believed that nothing can be right if authority cannot be 
quoted for its support. Most people, instead of studying nature 
or the facts of any question to form their own opinions, study books 
and the opinions of others, and never think of questioning the views 
of accepted authorities. The absurdity of so doing is realized only 
by study of the past, whose records prove that upon all subjects 
opinions are continually changing; and even in the domain of science 
the accepted theories have been almost as numerous and as change- 
able as in that of religion. To-day, for instance, we discover that 
there is a light or force which enables us to see through wood, metal. 


and other solid substances, and even through our own bodies, as if 
they were -translucent. The elements are being divided, and we are 
so accustomed to the marvels of scientific invention that we should 
hardly be surprised if told that the problem of the ages has been 
solved, and gold produced from other substances. The records of 
the past prove an evolution of mind as well as matter, and show that 
the authorities have at different times supported many different and 
opposed views of the same subjects, and it will be possible to 
quote authority for almost any view of any subject that may be 
brought up. 

In all ages advance has been due to those who have differed from 
popular opinion, to those who have discarded authorities and studied 
nature. The art student is earnestly advised to study the work of 
all great artists, and nature at the same time, and not to accept 
any views not in harmony with the opinions which he has founded 
upon his own careful study of nature. Students of art and science 
also will be wise to go to nature first and always, and never to 
accept theories concerning which their own study of nature occasions 
the least doubt or uncertainty. 

It is often stated that the inventions of the last few years have 
been so numerous and so great that the end must soon be reached ; 
but the student cannot accept this conclusion, and must believe that 
the end will never be reached, and that as long as man exists he will 
be adding to his knowledge until he has solved all the problems pos- 
sible to conceive of now and many as yet not thought of. Who can 
say that the mysteries of life, death, the soul, and the future shall 
not some day be solved by the scientist, and life be much more joyful 
and the world infinitely more beautiful to those who then will be 
students of an art and science in which our present knowledge and 
power is merely the alpha of the results which the future will without 
doubt bring forth ? 

In the effort to hasten this day of knowledge, which is the day of 
power and happiness, let us exert all our energies to be serious 
and honest students, and thus workers for our own welfare and that 
of the world. 


Aesthetics. The science which treats of the beautiful, and its various 
modes of representation in nature and art ; the philosophy of the fine arts. 

Accent. Emphasis of light or of dark in a light and shade drawing ; 
of dark in an outline drawing ; and of color or of light and dark in a color 

Altitude. The perpendicular distance between the bases, or between 
the vertex and the base, of a solid or plane figure. 

Angle. The difference in direction of two lines which meet or tend to 
meet. The lines are called the sides^ and the point of meeting, the vertex 
of the angle. 

An angle is measured by means of an arc of a circle described from its 
vertex as a center and included between its sides. The center of the arc is 
the vertex of the angle. 

The angle formed by two radii of the circle which include an arc equal 
to ^\^ of the circumference is taken as the unit for measuring angles, and 
is called a degree. 

The degree is divided into sixty equal parts called minutes^ and the 
minutes into sixty equal parts called seconds. 

Degrees, minutes, and seconds are denoted by symbols. Thus 5 degrees, 
13 minutes, 12 seconds, is written 5° 13' 12". 

A Right Angle is one which is formed by two radii 
which include \ of the circumference. It contains 90°. 
A straight angle is equal to two right angles and 
contains 180°. 

Acute Angle. An angle less than a right angle. 

Obtuse Angle. An angle greater than a right angle. 

Oblique Angle. One which is not a right or a straight angle. 


Apez. See Vertex. The summit, or highest point of an object 
Apparent Color. The color which any object appears to have. 
Appearance. The image produced in the eye by the form, light and 
shade, or color of any object. 

Arc. See Circle. 

Arrangement. The orderly disposition of objects or forms. 

Atmosphere. The effect of reality due to correct drawing and values 
artistically rendered. 

Axis of a Solid. An imaginary straight line passing through its center 
and about which the different parts are symmetrically arranged. 

Ajds of a Figure. A straight line passing through the center of a figure, 
and dividing it into two equal parts. 

Balance. The equality of parts, obtained by the proper distribution of 
lines or of light and dark. 

Base. The opposite parallel polygons of prisms. The polygon oppo- 
site the vertex of a pyramid. The plane surfaces of cylinders and cones. 
The opposite parallel sides of a parallelogram or trapezoid. The shortest 
or longest side of an isosceles triangle, and any side in any other triangle, 
but usually the lowest. 

Bisect. To divide into two equal parts. 

Blend. To soften and bring together. 

Blocking-in Lines. The lightest and simplest suggestions of the lead- 
ing lines and masses of the subject. 

Blur Glass. A magnifying glass of about 1 5 inches focus. 

Brightness or Luminosity. The strength of the light sent to the eye 
by any color. A luminous or bright color sends a large amount of light 
to the eye. 

Broken Color. Color changed by the addition of gray. 

Breadth. Simplicity due to large masses which subordinate details to 
the spirit and effect of the whole. 

Cast. An object made of plaster-of- Paris. 

Center of Vision. The point on the picture plane directly opposite the 

Chiaro-oscuro. The art of combining light and shade. 


Circle. A plane figure bounded by a curved line, called a Jl. 
circumference, all points of which are equally distant from a ^. 
point within called the center. 

The boundary line is called the Circumference. 

Diameter. A straight line drawn through the center, and con- 
necting opposite points in the circumference, as a b. 

Radius. The distance from its center to the circumference, 
as c e. 

Semicircle. Half a circle, formed by bisecting it with a 
diameter, 2i% a d b a. 

Arc. Any part of the circumference, as e b. 

Chord. A straight line whose ends are in the circumference, 

Segment. The part of a circle bounded by an arc and a chord, 

Sector. The part of a circle bounded by two radii and an arc, 
as ^ ^ ^ ^. 

Quadrant. A sector bounded by two radii and one fourth of 
the circumference, as a c d a. 

Tangent. A straight line which meets a circumference, but 
being produced does not cut it, as k d. The point of meeting is 
called the point of contact or point of tangency. 

Cold Colors. Those in which blue predominates. 

Color. The result of the decomposition of light into the various 
elements composing it. It is a sensation due to the effects produced upon 
the eye by the waves of different lengths found in light, and does not exist 
outside of ourselves. Practically we speak of material color as that which 
decomposes light, and most objects are colored in the sense that they 
decompose light and send to the eye rays which are not white. Thus a 
body which reflects all the rays equally is white ; one which absorbs all 
the rays except the red rays is red ; and one which absorbs all the rays 
except the blue is blue; and one which absorbs practically all the rays 
is black. 

Composition. The arrangement of the different lines, parts, and masses 
of a subject. 


Concave. Curving inwardly. 

Cona A solid bounded by a plane surface called the base^ which is a 
circle, ellipse, or other curved figure, and by a lateral surface which is 
everywhere curved, and tapers to a point called the vertex. Its base names 
the cone. Thus a circular cone is one whose base is a circle. 

A Right Circular Cone is generated by an isosceles triangle 
which revolves about its altitude as an axis. The equal 
sides of the triangle in any position are called elements of 
the surface. The length of an element is called the slant 
height of the cone. Unless otherwise stated, "cone" 
means a right circular cone. 

Constructive Drawing. A drawing intended for the workman who is- 
to make the object. 

Contour. The outline or periphery of the appearance of an object. 

Contrast. The effect due to the juxtaposition of different lines, different 
forms, different masses of light and dark, or different colors. 

Conventionalization. In art, the expression of the spirit and important 
truths of nature by a subordination of less important features. 

Convergence. Lines extending toward a common point, or planes ex- 
tending toward a common line. 

Convex. Rising or swelling into a spherical or rounded form. 

Comer. The point of meeting of the edges of a solid, or of two sides 
of a plane figure. 

Cylinder. A solid bounded by a curved surface and by two pp^ 
opposite faces called bases ; the bases may be ellipses, circles, or j 

other curved figures, and name the cylinder. Thus a circular U-tJ 
cylinder (the ordinary form) is one whose bases are circles. 

A Right Circular Cylinder is generated by the revolution 
of a rectangle about one side as an axis. The side about which 
the rectangle revolves is called the height of the cylinder, also its 
axis. The side opposite the axis describes the curved surface of 
the cylinder, and in any of its positions is called an element of the 
Cut up. Having its effect destroyed by exaggerated detail. 

Design. Any arrangement or combination to produce desired results in 
industry or art. 


DiagonaL A straight line in any polygon which connects 
vertices not adjacent. 

In regular polygons, diagonals are called /^wg' when they 
pass through the center, as c d, and short when they extend 
between parallel sides, as a b. 

Diameter. See Circle. In a regular polygon with an even 
number of sides a line joining the centers of two opposite sides 
is often called a diameter. 

Distorted. Different from the image in the eye and producing an un- 
satisfactory impression of the object. 

Diverging Linea Lines extending from a common point. 

Dividing Line of Light and Shade. A line composed of the edges or 
of the edges and the elements which separate the surface in light from the 
surface in shadow. 

Drawing. Any representation of nature by means of outline, light and 
shade, or color ; but outiine or light and shade is usually understood. 

Dry Brush. The use of a brush which is barely moist with water color. 

Edge. The intersection of any two surfaces. The boundary line. 
Edges are straight or curved, and are represented by lines. 
Element See Cylinder and Cone. 

" Contour. One which forms part of the contour. 
" Glitter. One which has the highest light upon it. 
" Shadow. One which forms part of the dividing line of light 
and shade. 
Elevation. A drawing made on a vertical plane by means of projecting 
lines perpendicular to the plane from the points of the object. The terms 
elevation, vertical projection, and front view all have the same meaning. 

Ellipse. A plane figure bounded by a line such that the sum 
of the distances of any point in it, as c^ from two given points .^•-^S'^^ 
e and /*, called foci^ is equal to a given line, as a b. The point *Q^ ^^ 
midway between the foci is called the center. ^ 

The Transverse Axis of an ellipse is the longest diameter that 
can be drawn in it, as ^ 3. It is also called the major or long axis. 
The Conjugate Axis is the shortest diameter which can be 
drawn, 2is c d. It is also called the minor or short axis. 


The Foci, e and /j are situated in the long diameter, and the 
distance of each focus from r or ^ is equal to one half a b. 

Face. One of the plane surfaces of a solid. It may be bounded by 
straight or curved edges. 

FinlBhing. Completing a drawing, whose lines or masses have been 
determined, by representing details and by strengthening and accenting 
where this is required. 

Fizatil A thin varnish used to fix charcoal drawings. 

Foreshortening. Apparent decrease in length, due to a position oblique 
to the visual rays. 

Free-hand. Executed by the hand, without the aid of instruments. 

Gradation. A gradual change from light to dark, or from one color to 

Ghroup. Any collection of objects to be studied. 

Handling. See Technique. 

Hard. Any study of nature is hard, crude, or mechanical when its out- 
lines are too keen, or when objects are outlined with light or with dark, or 
are false in values. 

Harmony. The pleasing arrangement of lines, light and dark, or 

Half-tint. The shading produced by means of parallel equidistant 

Horizon. In pictorial art, a horizontal line at the level of the eye. 

Horizontal. Parallel to the surface of smooth water. 

In drawings, a line parallel to the top and bottom of the sheet is called 

Instrumental. By the use of instruments. 

Key. The scale of light and dark, or color. 

Lateral Surface. The surface of a solid, excluding the base or bases. 

Lateral Edge. One not bounding a base. 

Light. The agent which produces vision. Light is supposed to 
travel in straight lines by means of minute undulations or waves in the 
particles of ether which fill all space. A ray of solar light is composed 
of a large number of differentiy colored rays of light, which uniting form 
white light. 


Light, Mass of. The entire surface whose effect, in constrast with the 
shadows, is that of strong light. It is designated by the word 
" High, or Glitter. The brightest part of any surface — the 

part that glitters. 
" Half. The part intermediate in value between the shadow and 

the light. 
" Direct. Rays from the sun, moon, or any artificial light. In 

a studio, rays from the window. 
" Indirect. Rays reflected to any object from surrounding 
Local color. The actual color of the light which is not absorbed by 
any object. This color is visible when the object is near the eye and does 
not reflect colored light received from any other object. 

Level of the Eye. The level or position of a horizontal plane passing 
through the spectator's eye. 

Line. A line has length only. In a drawing- its representation has 
width, but is called a line. 

Line, Straight. One which has the same direction 
throughout its entire length. 
" Curved. One no part of which is straight. /^ X 

" Broken. One composed of different successive 

straight lines. 
" Mixed. One composed of straight and curved lines. 
Medium. The pencil, crayon, color, or other material used to produce 
the drawing. 

Model. An object used for study. 
Monochrome. A painting in one color. 
Neutral Color. Color which is not pure or bright. 
Opaque Color. Pigment having a body which hides the surface receiv- 
ing the color. 

Painting. A representation of values made by the use of the brush and 
color. It may be in monochrome or in color. 

Parallel. Having the same direction and everywhere equally 

distant. II AX 


ParallelogranL See Quadrilateral. 
Perpendicular. At an angle of 90°. 


Perspective. The art of representing on a surface the appearances 
seen from any given position. 

Linear. The art of making upon a plane, called the picture 
plane^ such a representation of objects that the lines of the drawing 
appear to coincide with those of the object, when the eye is at one 
fixed point called the station-point. 

Aerial. The art of representing nature's effects by light and 
shade, or by color. 

Diagram. A linear perspective obtained scientifically by per- 
spective methods. It is often very false pictorially when not seen 
from the station-point. 

Parallel. A linear perspective which represents a cubical 
object by the use of one vanishing-point (the center of vision), and 
a surface parallel to the picture plane by its real shape. 

Angular. A linear perspective which represents a cubical 
object by the use of two vanishing-points on the level of the eye. 

Oblique. A linear perspective which represents a cubical object 
by the use of three vanishing-points, not more than one being on the 
level of the eye. 

Free-hand or Model Drawing. A drawing which, without 
confining the eye to the station-point, represents as far as possible 
the actual appearances of objects. It 'is made free-hand, and is 
more satisfactory than an exact diagram perspective, except when 
subjects causing very large visual angles are to be represented. 

Plan. Plan, horizontal projection, and top view have the same mean- 
ing, and designate the representation of an object made on a horizontal 
plane by means of vertical projecting lines. In architecture it means a 
horizontal section. 

Plane Figure. A part of a plane surface bounded by lines. 

Plinth. A cylinder or prism whose axis is its least dimen- ^^ "7 1 
sion. It is circular^ triangular, square, etc., according as it L Jx 
has circles, triangles, squares, etc., for bases. 



PolygoxL A plane figure bounded by straight lines. 

An Equilateral Polygon is one whose sides are all equal. 

An Equiangular Polygon is one whose angles are all equal. 

A Regular Polygon is one which is equilateral and equi- 

Parallel Polygons are those whose sides are respectively 

o o o 

Triangle. A polygon having three sides (i). 
Quadrilateral. A polygon having four sides (2). 
Pentagon. A polygon having five sides (3). 
Hexagon. A polygon having six sides (4). 
Heptagon. A polygon having seven sides (5). 
Octagon. A polygon having eight sides. (6). 
NoNAGON. A polygon having nine sides. 
Decagon. A polygon having ten sides. 
Undecagox. a polygon having eleven sides. 
Dodecagon. A polygon having twelve sides. 
The center of a regular polygon is the common intersection of 
perpendiculars erected at the middle points of its sides. 

The polygons represented in the figures are regular polygons. 

Priam. A solid bounded by two equal parallel polygons, having their 
equal sides parallel, and by three or more parallelograms. 

The polygons are called the bases of the prism, the parallelograms the 
lateral faces ^ the intersections of the lateral faces, the lateral edges. 

Prisms are called triangular^ square^ pentagonal^ etc., accord- 
ing as the bases are triangles, squares, pentagons, etc. 


A Right Prism is one in which the edges connecting the bases 
are perpendicular to the bases. 


An Oblique Prism is one in which the edges connecting the 
bases are not perpendicular to the bases. 

A Regular Prism is a right prism whose bases are regular 

The Altitude of a prism is the perpendicular distance between 
the bases. 

The Axis of a regular prism is a straight line connecting the 
centers of its bases. 

Profile. The contour outline of an object. 

Projection, orthographic. The view or representation of an object 
obtained upon a plane by projecting lines perpendicular to the plane. 

Pure or Normal Colors. The spectrum colors. 

Pyramid. A solid of which one face, called the base^ is a polygon, and 
the other faces, called lateral faces ^ are triangles having a common vertex 
called the vertex of the pyramid. The intersections of the lateral faces are 
called the lateral edges. 

A pyramid is called triangular^ square^ etc., according as its 
base is a triangle, square, etc. 

A Regular Pyramid is one whose base is a regular polygon 
and whose vertex is in a perpendicular erected at the center of the 
base. Its other faces are equal isosceles triangles. The altitude of 
any of these triangles is called the slant height of the pyramid. 

The Axis of a regular pyramid is a straight line connecting the 
vertex and the center of the base. 

The Altitude of a pyramid is the perpendicular distance from 
the vertex to the base. 

Quadrilateral. A plane figure bounded by four straight lines. These 
lines are the sides. The angles formed by the lines are the angles^ and the 
vertices of these angles are the vertices,, of the quadrilateral. 

A Parallelogram is a quadrilateral which has its opposite 
sides parallel. 

A Trapezium is a quadrilateral which has no two / I 

sides parallel, 


and only two sides, parallel, 

A Trapezoid is a quadrilateral which has two sides, \ \ 


A Rectangle is a parallelogram whose angles are 
right angles. 

A Rhomboid is a parallelogram whose angles are 
oblique angles. 

A Square is a rectangle whose sides are equal. 


A Rhombus is a Rhomboid whose sides are equal. / / 

The side upon which a parallelogram stands and the opposite side are 
called respectively its lower and upper bases. 

Reflected Light. The part of the shadow of any object which is 
lightened by rays reflected to it from some other object. 

Rendering or Handling. The way in which a medium is used. 

Representation. Any kind of drawing, painting, or sculpture. 

Retreating. Going away from. 

Section. A projection upon a plane parallel to a cutting plane which 
intersects any object. The section generally represents the part behind the 
cutting plane, and the cut surfaces are represented by cross-hatching. 

Shade. See Half Light. Also a tone of a color produced by the addi- 
tion of black pigment to material colors, and by the action of a feeble light 
upon immaterial colors. 

Shadow. The part of any surface which appears dark in consequence 
of receiving no direct light. 

Shadow, Cast. The shadow projected upon one object by 

Simple. Not giving too much or exaggerated detail. 

Sketch. A hasty and unfinished drawing. 

" Time. A sketch made in a specified time. 

Solid. A solid has three dimensions, length, breadth, and thickness. 
It may be bounded by plane surfaces, by curved surfaces, or by both plane 
and curved surfaces. As commonly understood, a solid is a limited portion 
of space filled with matter, but geometry does not consider the matter, and 
deals simply with the shapes and sizes of solids. 

Sphere. A solid bounded by a curved surface every point of f \ 

which is equally distant from a point within called the center. \y ^^ 


Still Life. Objects intended for use or ornament. 

Stippling. Filling in the space between hatching lines, or producing an 
effect, by means of dots. 

Study. Any carefully finished drawing or painting. 

Subject. Any object, group, or effect of nature to be represented by 
the artist. 

Surface. The boundary of a solid. It has but two dimensions, length 
and breadth. 

Surfaces are plane or curved. 

A Plane Surface is one upon which a straight line can be 
drawn in any direction. 

A Curved Surface is one no part of which is plane. 

The surface of the sphere is curved in every direction, while the curved 
surfaces of the cylinder and cone are straight in one direction. 

Tangent. A straight line and a curved line, or two curved lines, are 
tangent when they have one point common and cannot intersect ; lines or 
surfaces are tangent to curved surfaces when they have one point or one 
line common and cannot intersect. 

Test. Any process used to prove the work. 

Tint. A tone of a color produced by the addition of white to oil 
colors, water to water colors, and of white light to the immaterial colors of 
the spectrum. 

Technique. The handling or way in which an effect is obtained. 

Texture. The character of a surface. 

Tone. Tone designates the changes which color undergoes by the 
addition of white, which lightens, or of black, which darkens its normal 
tone. The word also means the effect of some predominating color pro- 
duced by the color of the light which illuminates the object. 

Self Tones. Tones of the same color. 

Transparent Colors. Those in which the color tints the paper or 
canvas, which shows through the color, and acts with it in producing 
the effect. 

Triangle. A plane figure bounded by three straight Hues. These lines 
are called the sides. The angles that they form are called the angles of 
the triangle, and the vertices of these angles, the vertices of the triangle. 


Triangles are named by their sides and angles. 

A Scalene Triangle is one in which no two sides are equal. 

An Isosceles Triangle is one in which two sides 
are equal. 

An Equilateral Triangle is one in which the 
three sides are equal. 

A Right Triangle is one in which one of the 
angles is a right angle. 

An Obtuse Triangle is one in which one of the 
angles is obtuse. 

An Acute Triangle is one in which all the angles 
are acute. 

The Hypotenuse is the side of a right triangle opposite the 
right angle. The other sides are called the legs. 

An Equiangular Triangle is one in which the three angles 
are equal. The value of each angle is 60°. 

The Base is the side on which the triangle is sr; posed to stand. 
In an isosceles triangle, the equal sides are called the legs^ the other 
side the base; in other triangles any one of the sides may be called 
the base. 

The Altitude is the perpendicular distance from the vertex to 
the base. Except in the isosceles triangle, there are three altitudes. 

The vertex of the angle opposite the base is often called the 
vertex of the triangle. 

Trisect. To divide into three equal parts. 

Type Form. A perfect geometrical plane figure or solid. 

Value. In color the relative amount of light contained in different 
colors. The strongest value is the lightest. 

As used by artists the word generally means the difference in effect due 
to any cause whatever, as light, color, shadow, atmosphere, etc. 

A flat value is one with no gradation. 


Vaniflh. To extend towards a vanishing point. 
Vanishing. Converging towards one point or line. 

" Point. A point towards which parallel lines converge. 
Variety. The effect due to the combination of parts which are not 

VerticaL Upright, or perpendicular to a horizontal plane or line. 
Vertical and perpendicular are not synonymous terms. 

Vertex. See Angle, Quadrilateral, Triangle. The vertex of a solid is 
the point in which its axis intersects the lateral surface. 

View. See Elevation. Views are called front, top, right or left side, 
back, or bottom, according as they are made on the different planes of 
projection. They are also sometimes named according to the part of the 
object shown, as edge view, end view, or face view. 

Visual Ray. A single ray or line of light from any object to the eye. 

" Angle. The angle formed at the eye by the outer visual rays 

from any object. 
"Warm Colors. Those in which red and yellow predominate. 
"Working Drawing. One which gives all the information necessary to 
enable the workman to construct the object. 


Accented outline drawing, 112, 118, 

126, 129. 
accents, 13, 50, 104, 135, 138, 139. 
accidental effects, 133, 135, 143. 
aerial perspective, 49. 
aids, see tests, 
angularity, 80. 
antique, no. 
appearances, i, 2, 3. 
art due to, 155, 161. 
art is difficult, 152, 153, 157. 
art judgment, 71. 
art schools, 158, 159, 160, 161. 
art student's aims, 62, 63. 
art study, 152, 155. 
art teaching, 71, 140, 144, 150, 152. 
artificial light, 23, 38, 40. 
artistic rendering, 80, 147. 
artist's aims, 64, 68, 1 52, 1 55. 
atmosphere, to obtain, 98, 104, 135. 
atomizer, 91. 
axis, 82. 

Background, use of, 76, 121, 124, 125, 

126, 146, 147, 149. 
background subordinate, 104. 
beauty, 25, 155. 
beginner, 140, 145. 
Berville, 87. 

black, not seen, 49, 58; use of, 50. 
black card, 57. 
black frame, 58. 
black paper, 56. 

blending, 81, 97 ; pencil work, 113, 114. 
blocking-in lines, 93. 

blocking method, 80, 81. 

blotting paper, 135, 138. 

blur glass, 26, 55, 56. 

boards, 87. 

bread, use of, 89, 97. 

breath, use of, 89. 

broad gray line, in. 

brush work, 128, 142; dry method, 130, 

131; wet method, 135; difficult, 144. 
brushes, 92, 128, 131; bristle, 128, 138, 

139; camel's-hair, 128; Japanese, 128. 

Camera, 21, 68. 

canvas, 87. 

careful drawing, 35, 39, 40, 43, 51, 62, 

I43» 156. 

cast shadow, 4, 7, 8, 11, 15, 18, 19, 21, 
25. 38, 44, 58, 119; unsatisfactory 
without the shadow, 119. 

center lines, 82. 

chamois skin, 90. 

charcoal, 87, 93; stub of, 96; to sharpen, 
98; use of point, 95, 98. 

charcoal gray, 129. 

Chavannes, 156. 

cheese cloth, 86. 

chiaro-oscuro, i. 

chromo, 153. 

Claude Lorrain mirror, 54. 

cloth, 90. 

color study difficult, 140, 141; expen- 
sive, 141. 

colored objects, 14, 15, 20, 30, 35, 38, 

colors, moist, 128. 



companson necessary, 31, 143. 

compositions, 82. 

cone, 12, 19, 44. 

Cont^, 87, 88. 

contour, 39, 40. 

contour element, 13. 

contours not sharp, 98, 99, 133, 135. 

contrast, 2, 20,- 23, 27, 34, 43, 44, 58, 

121; delicate, 23; strong, 23; due to 

color, 121. 
Coquelin, 86. 
crayon holder, 98. 
crayon paper, 115. 
crayon sauce, 88. 
crayons, 88, 142. 
criticism, 71, 73; necessary, 150. 
cube, 7, 8, 9. 
curtains, 85, 149. 
cylinder, 9, 44, 145. 

Dark appearing light, 22, 23, 31. 

dark effects, 21, 22. 

Degas, 156. 

detail in the half light, 34. 

detail in the light, 32, 43. 

detail in the shadow, 35, 38, 43. 

detail subordinate, 31, 37, 62, 64, 104. 

dictation, 145. 

different lights, 15. 

difficult effects, 20. 

diffused light, 22. 

diminishing glass, 54. 

direct light, 9, 18, 36. 

direction of shading, 96, 148. 

director of drawing, 150; required, 151. 

distance, 68. 

distorted photograph, 6S, 69. 

distortion, 68, 69. 

dividing line of light and shade, 4, 5, 7, 

34, 35- 
drapery, 42. 
drawing, 62, 78. 
dry method, 130. 
Dutch method, 135. 

Easel, 86. 

effect due to position, 5, 28. 
effect of contrast, 2, 56, 58. 
effects changeable, 83. 
element, 30, 35. 
elimination of detail, 62, 104. 
erasers, 90; use of, 114, 147. 
Europe, 83. 
evolution, 163. 
exaggerated detail, 31, 53. 
eye, normal, 2, 31, 53, 80; half closed, 

Fads, 71. 

feeling due to study, 60, 63. 

finger, use of, 89, 97, 98. 

finishing, 98. 

first directions, 92. 

fixatif, 91. 

fixing, 51, 91, 92. 

foliage, 143, 144. 

foreshortened, 30. 

form study with the pencil, 144. 

Fusains Venetien, 87. 

Genius, 154. 

geometric forms, 52, 78, 99, 117, 147. 

Giotto, 84. 

glazed objects, 29. 

glitter light or point, see high light, 6, 

9, 12, 19, 23, 47. 
gradation, 6, 10, 13, 14, 19, 35, 44, 146. 
graded washes, 133. 
grammar of art, 161. 
gray drawings, 50, 51, $8. 
groups, 149. 

Half light, 6, 34. 

handling, 72. 

harmony, 72, 73, 83, 97. 

hatching, 96, 115, 127. 

high light, 6, 9, 12, 15, 25, 28, 29; varies 

in strength, color, and form, 26, 27, 

home study, 161. 



Ideals, 83. 

illustrative drawings, 150. 

illustrator, 51. 

image in the eye, 2, 31, 53, 80. 

imitation of nature, 46, 47. 

impression, 64, 65. 

India ink, 128, 143. 

indirect light, 7, 9, 36. 

individuality, 149, 162. 

inequality nature's law, 1 56. 

inspiration, 155. 

intensity of effect, 24. 

interiors, 126. 

interpretation, art an, 83, 152, 155. 

inventions, 163. 

invisible parts, 38, 39. 

iridescent color, 28. 

Japanese brushes, 1 28. 
Japanese paintings, 130. 

Kensington, South, 159. 
key, 48, 50. 
knife, 90. 

Lalanne, 86. 

lamplight, 23, 41. 

landscape, 49, 51, 59, 126, 127. 

law governs, 156, 157. 

Hght, 4, 8, 9, 12, 13, 15, 19, 20, 24, 30, 

3i» 32, ZZ, 34, 36, 48. 
light and shade, 2; to see, 145, 146; in 

class-room, 149. 
light effects, 19, 146. 
light infringes upon dark, 32, 33, 34. 
light reflects, 9, 20. 

lights, 3, 25, 40; studio, 16, 19, 21, 22. 
line method, 81. 
lines in shading, 148. 
local color, 2, 28. 
luminosity desirable, 50, 51, 58. 
Luxembourg, 156. 

Mahl stick, 93. 

mass of dark, 24, 38, 40, 43, 80, 93, 96. 

mass of light, 4, 8, 10, 12, 15, 33, 43. 

masters, old, 75, 158. 

materials, 86, iii, 128, 140. 

medium for first study, 140, 143, 144, 

memory drawing, 82. 

methods, artistic, 80, 144 ; unsatisfac- 
tory, 80, 83, 93, 141, 142, 143, 150; 
harmony in, 73, 97; line, 81. 

Michelet, 86. 

MUlet, J. F., 156. 

mirror, 54. 

monochrome, 2, 128. 

moon, 4, 7. 

moonlight, 24, 47, 48. 

Moore, George, 156, 159. 

Nature, 162. 
neutral tint, 128. 
Nigrivorine, 90. 
no sharp contours, 99. 
normal training, 158. 
North Star, 85. 

Objects of different colors, 14, 25. 
observation, 31, 143. 
old masters, 7 5, 1 58. 
opinion, difference of, 83. 
outline or light and shade, 140. 
outline study leads to shading, 73. 
outlines in water-color work, 131. 
outlines to be avoided, 96, 99, 117, 127, 

Painters, 62, 133, 135, 153, 154. 

painting, no. 

painting with the pencil, 76, 77, 79. 

paper for charcoal, 86; for pencil work, 
112, 113, 115; for water-color work, 
129; gray to be avoided, no. 

Payne's gray, 128. 

pen work, 127, 142, 149. 

pencil work desirable, 144. 

pencils, in; silver pencil, in. 



perspective, 68, 69. 

photographs, 5, 7, 30, 66, 104, 153. 

picture-making, 142. 

picturesque, 127. 

pigments, 128. 

point, use of charcoal, 71, 90, 95, 97, 
98; of pencil point, 114, 115, 147, 
148; of brush point, 129, 132, 138. 

polished objects, 7, 26, 36. 

popular methods, 142. 

posters, 130. 

pressure, 89. 

principles reviewed, 43, 44, 45. 

progress, 149. 

prominent detail, 34. 

public schools, 71, 86, 140, 145. 

pupil of eye, 31. 

pyramid, 13. 

Raphael, 74, 78. 

rapping, use of, 90. 

rays of light, 3. 

realism, 46, 47. 

reflected dark, 1 5, 36. 

reflected light, 6, 7, 9, 18, 20, 36, 37 ; 

not light, 37. 
reflections, 5, 27, 28. 
relations, 47, 48. 
Rembrandt, 125, 129. 
Reynolds, 77, 78. 
rubber bands, 1 38. 
rules impossible, 41, 82, 148. 

Sable brush, 128. 
sandpaper, 98. 
scholarships, 162. 
school committees, 150. 
school studios, 86. 
science fallible, 162. 
scientist, 53. 
selection, 83. 

self-training, 149, 159, 161. 
sentiment important, 65. 
sepia, 128. 

several lights, 40. 

shade, see half light. 

shading instead of outlines, 127, 147. 

shadow, 3, 4, 8, 9, 12, 13, 15, 24, 35, .36, 
44; without cast shadow, 119. 

shadow elements, 9, 12. 

shellac, 91. 

sight imperfect, i, 52, 53; due to mem- 
ory, I. 

silhouette, 129. 

simple masses, 24, 31. 

simplifying diflicult, 63. 

sketch, 79. 

sketch-book, 121. 

skylight, 85. 

South Kensington, 159. 

sphere, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 14, 44, 146. 

sponge, 135. 

stages, 96, 97. 

station-point, 69. 

still life, no. 

stretcher, 87, 92, 131. 

stretching paper, 130; by frame, 131. 

studio, 85. 

studio effects, 9, 11, 19, 21, 22, 38, 83. 

studio light, 85. 

study, 78. 

study abroad, 161. 

study at distance, 58, 92. 

study required, 152. 

stumps, 88, 89. 

subordination of detail, 62, 64, 104. 

success due to correct seeing, 115. 

success, financial, 153, 154, 156. 

suggestion, 47, 62, 76, 117, 127. 

sunlight, 3, 18, 38, 47, 85. 

system, 151. 

Table, 86. 

teachers of drawing, 144, 145, 157, 158; 

of painting, 158, 161. 
technique varies, 70, 72, t^, 148; choice 

of, 72; depends on education, 70; not 

art, 73; test for, 72, 148. 



tests for values, 52, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 
59, 60, 61 ; inferior to feeling, 60; lead 
to feeling, 60. 

text-books, 150. 

thumb clips, 87. 

time sketches, 79, 92, 94, 97, 104, 

tipping the head, 59. 

trial lines, 112, 144. 

truth essential, 62 ; unsatisfactory, 66. 

Uniformity unpleasant, 117. 
unit of value, 46. 
unqualified teachers, 141. 
unsatisfactory methods, 93. 
use of hand, 59; of eraser, 144. 

Values, 2, 30, 31, 45, 46, 51, 52; should 
be studied, 48, 51, 76, 79, no; in 

charcoal, 144; scale of, 48, 135; of 

reflections, 37; not taught, 52, 83; 

changed, 69. 
variety necessary, 99, 104, 149; in cast 

shadow, 38. 
vegetables, 144. 
vignetted, 121. 

Vinci, Leonardo da, 41, 42, 75, 78. 
vision, blurred, 32, 49, 54, 55, 59, 93 ; 

natural, 2, 31, 53, 80. 
visual images, 2. 

Wash, to lay a, 131, 132, 133. 

water-color blocks, 1 30. 

water-color study, 149. 

water marks, 131, 132, 133, 135. 

wet method, 135. 

Whatman's paper, 87, 113, 129. 

Whistler, 156. 

A fine of 5 cento will be charged for each day the book it kept 
over time 

FEB 18 1^31